Are Peruvians considered natives

Spanish and Quechua in Peru

Table of Contents

1 Introduction

2 The language area of ​​Peru

3 Historical Background and Language Policy
3.1 From pre-Inca times to colonial times
3.2 Language policy in the colonial era up to the present day

4 Spanish Peru
4.1 Phonology / Phonetics
4.2 Morphosyntax
4.3 Lexic

5 Quechua
5.1 Quechua phonology, morphosyntax and lexicons
5.2 Socio-cultural structures and problems of Quechua
5.3 Quechua, Quechua speakers and education system

6 Conclusion

7 Bibliography

1 Introduction

In the 500 years that have passed since the Spanish conquered the continent, the Spanish of America has developed differently from its mother tongue in some essential aspects. Some of the many differences that have arisen in morphology, syntax and phonetics, as well as phonology, are to be worked out in this work. It should of course not be forgotten that the development of Spanish in America was also influenced by the multitude of indigenous languages. The work should also deal with the influence of the indigenous languages ​​on Spanish in South America, as well as taking into account the inverse mode of action at the same time. Quechua as a selected example of an indigenous language should also be examined more closely in the interplay of mutual influences, while the focus should be placed on the differentiation of the individual languages ​​themselves.

In the first chapter, the work provides a general impression of the selected language area Peru. In the second chapter, diachronic aspects are examined in more detail, which examine the essential historical events for their linguistic developmental value.

In the third chapter, the work deals with linguistic problems by considering the Spanish of Peru syntactically, morphologically, phonetically / phonological as well as lexically and comparing it with the Spanish of the Iberian Peninsula.

In the fourth chapter, the work introduces Quechua as an indigenous language. Here, too, the historical background is briefly examined before a brief linguistic analysis is carried out. The socio-cultural aspects and the use of Quechua in society are also examined more closely, with the terms monolinguality and bilingualism being discussed.

Finally, the question of the mutual influence of the two languages ​​in the linguistic field should be dealt with briefly.

In summary, a conclusion is drawn at the end of the work, in which what has been said before is exposed to an exposed evaluation.

2 The language area of ​​Peru

Peru is located in the northwestern part of South America, where it borders Ecuador and Colombia in the north, Brazil and Bolivia in the east, Chile in the south and the Pacific in the west. With an area of ​​1,285,220 km, Peru is almost four times the size of Germany, but in comparison with 28.3 million it has just under a third of Germany's population. 7 million of the inhabitants of Peru live in the capital Lima. The ethnic groups of Peru are made up of 45% Indians, 37% Mestizos, 15% Whites and 3% Blacks, mulattos and Asians. In addition to Spanish (80%), Quechua (40%) and Aimara (4%) are official languages ​​spoken. In addition to these languages, there are various others in the language area of ​​Peru. The information on these other languages ​​varies enormously between 40 to 106 spoken languages, which belong to 16 different language families. Some important languages ​​besides the main languages ​​are seen in Aguaruna, Ashaninka, Chayahuita, Cocama-Cocamilla, Shipibo-Conbibo and Yanisha (Noll 2001; p.7).

Peru's state area is made up of 11% Costa (Coast), 15% Sierra (Andes, highlands) and 64% Selva (Forest, rainforest) together. Since the Selva as well as that Sierra Due to their geological conditions, they offer little economic potential nowadays, the phenomenon of rural exodus, which has continued to increase over the centuries - not only because of economically motivated reasons - is easy to understand. A topic that will be discussed in more detail later in this work.

Due to the suboptimal infrastructure of the country, caused by extreme differences in altitude in the country, Selva and Sierra only marginally from the economic upturn in the Costa benefit. Agriculture and fishing, the cultivation of sugar cane and coffee currently play the largest role in the economy and bring the most financial returns to the country. Peru is also rich in mineral resources, but these have been and still are being exploited and exported by international consortia.

Through missionary work, which began with the conquest of South America in the 15th and 16th centuries, 93% of Peruvians today profess Catholicism, 5% Protestantism and 2% other denominations [Der Weltatlas 2000; P.120].

3 Historical Background and Language Policy

As far as the language area of ​​Peru is concerned, reference should primarily be made to the development of Spanish and Quechua.

The historical background in this work is divided into three major epochs: pre-Inca and Inca, colonial, modern and today's period. The events that essentially determined language policy are to be assigned to the associated data and their consequences, which were complex, are to be examined in more detail.

The colonial era in particular laid the foundation for the development of the vernacular language Quechua and the language of the conquerors, Spanish.

The coexistence of a liberal ´asimilación suave´ and its counterpart the ´asimilación dura´ has an influence on the language policy of the language area of ​​Peru to this day. What exactly defines these two systems will be specified in more detail in the next working points.

3.1 From pre-Inca times to colonial times

Peru was populated by humans very early on. Already from 20,000 to 10,000 BC The first immigrants came and as early as 4000 BC. Agriculture and cattle breeding began. One of the most famous pre-Inca cultures was that of the Nazca, which developed from around AD 200 to 600. The Inca empire came into being around 1200 AD and Quechua was an intrinsic lingua franca. The Inca expanded their empire so far until 1532 that it described parts of today's Ecuador, Peru, Colombia, Bolivia, Argentina and Chile (Lipski 1994; p.316). Representatives of newly integrated peoples, who showed a great linguistic diversity, had to learn Quechua as a lingua franca in order to maintain the economic system and contribute to it, but did not have to do without the practice of their own language (Gugenberger p.149). The language policy of the Inca was consequently not repressive, but was characterized by an elitist understanding (Gugenberger p.149). Quechua was immanent in the Inca empire, and in this regard it was also called runa simi (Language of man), whereas the other languages ​​belong to the category of hawa simi (the external languages) were counted (Gugenberger p.149). With the conquest of the continent by the Spaniards, the language policy changed rapidly, which meant that "the panandine process of political and linguistic unification [was] broken off" (Gugenberger p.153).

In 1532, 40 years after Columbus, the first European to set foot in South America, Francisco Pizarro landed on the coast of Peru and captured the Inca ruler Atahualpa at the Battle of Cajamarca, whom he executed a year later. Pizarro then reached what was then the capital, Cuzco, which was handed over to him without significant resistance.

As a result, Peru developed into a Spanish colony for almost 300 years, ruled by a viceroy. A fact that the identification on the part of the indígenas made even more difficult with the de facto regime of Spain. In 1542 the viceroyalty of Peru was gradually founded with Lima as its capital. “From then on, the colonizers controlled the development of the conquered peoples and steered them according to their political, economic and religious interests. The long-term goal from the beginning was ´civilization´, that means Europeanization and Hispanization of the Indian ethnic groups (...) ”(Gugenberger p.153).

3.2 Language policy in the colonial era up to the present day

Since Hispanization and Christianization had to be implemented quickly for economic and political reasons, the missionaries were ad eum finem “encouraged to learn the Indian languages, especially the ´lenguas generales´” (Gugenberger p.157).

As a result of this arrangement, grammars and dictionaries of the indigenous languages ​​emerged, created and worked out by the clergy, which, based on the erroneous assumption that it is an inflectional language, rather than an agglutinating language, should play a marginal role nowadays with regard to linguistic analyzes . According to the Councils of Lima (1551/52; 1567/68 and 1581-83), the aim of Hispanization with the exclusive use of the indigenous languages ​​de jure was prescribed. This and the establishment of a chair for Quechua at the University of San Marcos seem to tolerate and promote the cohabitation of Spanish and the indigenous languages ​​along the lines of the Inca, but are to be understood in exactly the opposite sense. It made sense to use Quechua as an instrument and through this language to gradually switch to a standard language: Spanish (Gugenberger p.157). The failure of this language policy can still be observed today, as the indigenous languages ​​have indeed been pushed back, but not become extinct and have been substituted by Spanish. With regard to Hispanization, for example, a logically well thought-out concept contrasts with an inadequate and sometimes polemical implementation. The coexistence of vernacular languages ​​and the Iberian mother tongue led to an economically motivated apartheid situation, triggered by wealthy landowners who wanted to consolidate their power by barring access to the Spanish language for the Indian majorities. The following century was marked by the total decline of the Indians. The number of originally 10-15 million indigenous people drops to around 800,000. In the 18th century the change to the Bourbon rule in Spain resulted in the complete rejection of the linguistic diversity on the part of the mother country, since the tolerance of such a state or the indigenous languages ​​would promote unrest and revolts (Gugenberger p.159). So the last Indian uprising, which was led by Túpac Amaru towards the end of the 18th century, led to a complete rejection of all indigenous cultural assets (Gugenberger p.161). Even with the gradual separation from the motherland, something only apparently changed. The goal was now “a homogeneous state (...) in which cultural differences should be erased. The Indians like all other minorities were legally equated with the other Peruvians by decree. "But all the resolutions of the 19th century to protect and improve the situation of the Indians turned out to be mere hope, since the desired social integration, such as literacy and economic security, was not created" (Gugenberger p.163). Nevertheless, the purely Quechua-speaking population now recognized the need to learn the official language, which granted them rights, which restarted the Hispanization process that had come to a standstill (Gugenberger p.165). The process of mestizo formation is now accompanied by the incipient bilingualism. This point will be discussed in more detail later when Quechua is examined more closely.

For the Peruvians, some other dates represent important points in their history. For example, the area of ​​today's countries Ecuador, Colombia, Panama and Venezuela is separated from the Viceroyalty of Peru in 1718. In 1780 the Indio José Gabriel Condorcanqui against foreign rule and named himself Inca Emperor under the name Tupac Amaru II, which leads to a 9-month uprising that ends bloody like the uprising in 1814. In 1821 General San Martín proclaimed Peru's independence and confirmed it in the last battle of the War of Independence in 1824 at Ayacucho. Ultimately, in 1825, Bolivia separated from Peru. In the following period, presidents are arbitrarily appointed and removed, which leads to rebellions and civil wars preventing the development of a modern state. 1879 to 1883 after an economic boom in the 19th century, Peru and its allied Bolivia are defeated by Chile in the Pacific War, which leads to the loss of the provinces of Arica, Tarapaca and Tacna on the Peruvian side. In 1924 the founding of the Alianza Popular Revolucionaria Americana (APRA) takes place, which the interests of the social lower class (which predominantly from Indians exists). The idea that prevailed in the population Indians would be synonymous with barbarism, backwardness, inferiority, poverty and stupidity, while the white symbolized civilization, progress, superiority, wealth and wisdom is committed to the preservation and development of these languages, at least symbolically overcome, because the maintenance of the indigenous languages ​​was nevertheless understood as an obstacle to integration. In 1993, 20 years later, the constitution allows every citizen of Peru to use his or her mother tongue in contact with authorities with the help of an interpreter. The official languages ​​are Castilian and in the areas where they are predominant also Quechua, Aimara and the other native languages ​​(von Gleich 2004; p.118ff.). Furthermore, the state supports bilingual education, at least in theory. How this looks in detail will be discussed later.

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