What is the story of the Chinese government


China is a country in East Asia. There is no other country in the world where more people live. The vast majority of China is called the "People's Republic of China". Its capital is Beijing. But an island off the coast of China has its own government and is called the Republic of China or Taiwan. Their capital is Taipei. China is called Zhong-guo in the local language. That means something like "Middle Kingdom" in German. This term is also often heard in German.

The Chinese have a long history and ancient culture. This includes, for example, the Chinese characters. Nowadays, the People's Republic of China is a country in which there is a particularly large amount of cultivation and production.

What does the country look like?

China is the fourth largest country in the world. Because the country is very large, there are many different regions in the country. In the northwest there are many steppes and deserts, such as the Taklamakan, the second largest sandy desert in the world. In the southwest lies the highlands of Tibet, with the Himalayas in the south. Part of Mount Everest, the highest mountain in the world, is in China. Central China is also very mountainous.

In the south there are jungles and in the west large plains with large rivers. The largest are the Yangtze River or Long River, the Huanghe or Yellow River, and the Xi Jiang or West River. The largest cities in China, such as Beijing, Shanghai, Canton and Hong Kong, are located in the plains and on the rivers.

The most famous animal from China is the giant panda, which only lives here. There are very few pandas left, but because the black and white bear is very popular, attempts are being made to breed it. The yak, a large cow with a shaggy fur, comes from Tibet. In the east, people keep trample, as the two-humped camel is also called. In the north lives the Siberian tiger, the largest tiger in the world.

What is the history of China?

The Terracotta Army of Emperor Qin.
With the "Great Wall" the Chinese wanted to protect themselves from attacks from the north. Despite this, China was conquered by other peoples twice. We call it the Great Wall of China.

China is one of the oldest countries in the world. Rice was already being grown on the Yellow River and the Yangtze River 12,000 years ago. The first high cultures emerged 5,000 years ago. In the year 221 BC the ruler of Qin, pronounced "Tschin", united the various Chinese kingdoms and made himself the first emperor of the country. From him it got its name in German: China. He introduced a single script for his entire empire, from which today's Chinese script arose. When Emperor Qin died, he was buried in a huge underground tomb. He is guarded by thousands of life-size soldiers made of clay, the Terracotta Army.

China had many different emperors over the following millennia, sometimes splitting up into smaller empires. The Mongols once conquered China and ruled it for nearly 100 years before being driven out again. At that time there was already brisk trade with Europe. Caravans used the Silk Road to bring silk, china, spices and other valuable goods from one end of the world to the other. The Italian Marco Polo reported that he had traveled to the court of Emperor Kublai Khan.

400 years ago the Manchu conquered China and now they are the emperor. The Han didn't like it and there were always riots. They were particularly angry because China became very weak under the Manchu emperors and was defeated several times by European countries in wars. China had to surrender several port cities to these countries. In 1912 the emperor was deposed and China became a republic. But arguments broke out among politicians and eventually civil war.

Shortly afterwards, Japan conquered large parts of China. Many people died until the Japanese had to leave after the lost war. The civil war also claimed many victims. Eventually the nationalists fled to the island of Taiwan, where they continued to run the Republic of China. Meanwhile, the communists proclaimed the People's Republic of China on the mainland.

The city of Macau has long been a colony of Portugal and Hong Kong of Great Britain. Both cities are now part of the People's Republic of China. The country has changed a lot and is important to the economy of the entire world today.

What do you need to know about the people of China?

Many ethnic groups live in China. Here you can see Hui people making noodles. You can recognize the Hui by their white hats. They also speak Chinese, like most other Chinese, but are Muslims and have their own culture.

Most of the people in China speak Chinese. But there are several dialects of this language that are very different. What they have in common is the Chinese script, which has many thousands of characters. Without them, people from different parts of China could not understand each other.

Those people who speak Chinese mostly call themselves Han. However, every tenth Chinese belongs to one of over 50 other ethnic groups. There are Tibetans, Uighurs, Zhuang, Mongols, Manchu and many others. They usually have a different language, religion or way of life than the Han.

The most widespread religions in China are Buddhism, Confucianism and Taoism. Chinese people have no problem having several religions side by side. In addition, many worship their ancestors and there are also many Muslims and Christians.

Who is in charge in China?

China is divided into two countries, each of which has its own government. One rules the island of Taiwan and is called the Republic of China. The other one rules the rest of the world and calls itself the People's Republic of China. When people talk about China today, they usually mean the People's Republic.

The Chinese Communist Party rules in the People's Republic of China. There is a parliament, but only one party. The decisions are largely made by the leadership of the party. The highest boss is the President, who is also the head of the Communist Party. He is elected by Parliament, the National Assembly.

The Republic of China in Taiwan has a multi-party parliament, as in most European countries. Here the parties in the government take turns from time to time. There is also a president here. He is also elected by the people.

What is China known for?

Ancient Chinese characters: They were carved in bronze almost 3000 years ago. The Chinese still use their own script today. A sign stands for a concept, not a sound.

China has a very old culture. The individual characters can either mean syllables or whole words. Science and mathematics also play a major role in Chinese history, long before science in Europe. The philosopher Confucius dealt a lot with how people should live properly. Kungfu is a type of martial arts that originated in China and was previously practiced mainly by Shaolin monks. The German translation means something like "hard work".

Many things were invented in China. Paper, china, silk and gunpowder, for example. The pasta was also invented here and supposedly brought to Italy by Marco Polo. For a long time traders brought porcelain and silk all over the world from here.

How do people in China earn their money?

The Communists have ruled the People's Republic of China since 1949. They wanted to determine exactly what was made and how. Since around 1980, the Chinese have had more economic freedom: anyone who wants to set up a company is allowed to do so. As a result, some Chinese people who get on well with the state have become very rich. Many others have remained poor, especially in the countryside.

Nowadays, China manufactures a lot of products and delivers them abroad, for example clothing. While China has long had to buy machinery and electronics from abroad, it is now selling more and more of them. No other country grows so much wheat, maize, rice, potatoes and apples. China is also world champion in important metals such as zinc and lead and in generating electricity. Many countries in Europe buy large quantities of goods from China, including Germany.

  • Terrace fields: rice is grown here.

  • The Three Gorges Dam in central China turns running water into electricity.

  • Macau used to be a foreign colony, similar to Hong Kong. Even today the city is a special area in China.

  • This family visits a sacred turtle. In China, a turtle stands for a long life.