What's your strangest food obsession
Jung about sand therapy. The possibilities of game therapy and Jungian sand therapy (sand play) when working with psychosomatic illnesses in children
1. From the history of "sand therapy"
2. Advantages of the sand therapy approach
3. The method of "sand therapy"
4. Sand therapy: principles and structure of teaching
6. Reference list
“Hands often know how to unravel
over which the spirit beats in vain "
Sand is a mysterious material. It has the ability to fascinate a person - its suppleness, the ability to take on any shape: dry, light and non-slip or wet, dense and plastic. The sand game catches both adults and children. Children and adults who are spontaneously and with pleasure on the beach create sand pictures. The flexibility of sand makes you want to turn it into a miniature of the real world. A man acts as a creator without being bound by the results of his work. He creates a castle out of sand, admires it for some time, and then a wave or he himself destroys creation. One act of life ends and gives way to the next. And so endless. In this unique secret of being: everything comes and goes and there is nothing that can be irreparably destroyed - only the old gives way to the new. If a person lives this mystery repeatedly, he comes into a state of equilibrium, while the proportion of excitement and fear in his inner space decreases considerably.
Sand therapy (sand play) - One of the most interesting methods that emerged in the context of 20th century analytical psychology. Today it is most widespread in our country and is used in work with children and adults.
From the history of sand therapy
The sand therapy technique emerged as part of Jung's analytical approach and is largely based on working with the symbolic content of the unconscious as a source of inner growth and development.
The beginning of the use of a tray of sand in psychological practice is considered to be the late 1920s.
When working with children, Anna Freud, Eric Erickson, and other psychotherapists used toys and miniatures.
At the beginning of the twentieth century Charlotte Bühler designedThe "peace test", which is still used in Sweden as a diagnostic tool in child psychiatry.
The idea of using sand in a game with sick and mentally disadvantaged children was realized by Margaret Lowenfeld in the 1930s. M. Lovenfeld called their methodology - the technique of "building the world".The technique of "building the world" was adopted from the "test of the world".
In the 1950s, the Jungian psychoanalyst Dora Calff began to develop, who had dealt with the method of "building the world" Jungian sand therapy,which later became an independent direction in psychotherapy. D. Calff first used sand therapy in children and then in adults.
D. Calff laid the foundation for his approach to sand therapy K.G. Jung found that a series of sand pictures created by children or adults actually depicts a constant conflict with the unconscious and is akin to a series of dreams that occur during the analysis process. Working on a sandpit triggers the mental process of moving towards integrity and can lead to healing and personal development. In 1980 Dora M. Calf published the Sandplay monograph.
The author of the sand therapy method, the young Swiss analyst Dora Kalfff, believed: “A picture in the sand can be understood as a three-dimensional image of an aspect of the state of mind. An unconscious problem is playing out in the sandpit, like in a drama, the conflict is transferred from the inner world to the outer world and becomes visible. "
The method of "sand therapy" is based on a combination of non-verbal (the process of building a composition) and verbal expression from clients (a story about a finished composition, the writing of a story or a fairy tale that reveals the meaning of the composition). Sand therapy is used both when working with children and when working with adults.
Advantages of the sand therapy approach
Sand therapy - This is a unique opportunity to explore your inner world with the help of many miniature figures, a tray of sand, a certain amount of water. - Due to the feeling of freedom and security of self-expression that arises in communicating with a psychologist, it is an opportunity to express, with which it is difficult to find words to come into contact with. What is difficult to address directly to see in yourself what is normally beyond conscious awareness.
The possibility of self-expression in sand therapy is not limited to words. Just as a single symbol or image can express more than a hundred words, a figure or scene you construct can convey feelings, emotions and conflicts that are inaccessible to verbal expression. This can especially help those who for some reason find it difficult to put their feelings into words - for example, those whose experiences are so sharp and painful that for children who are still uncomfortable in the world of words, difficult to touch directly.
Sand therapy - A unique way of communicating with the world and yourself; a way to reduce inner stress, to unconsciously translate it symbolically, which increases self-confidence and opens up new paths for development. Sand therapy makes it possible to touch the deep, real self, restore your spiritual integrity and collect your unique picture of the world.
Sand therapy focuses on the inner potential of health and strength that is inherent in every person. Her emphasis is on the natural manifestation of thoughts, feelings and moods in creativity, accepting a person for who he is, along with his own methods of self-healing and harmonization. This satisfies the need of a modern person for the most natural and complex methods of treatment and harmonization, in which mind and emotions, body and spirit, masculine and feminine characteristics, the ability to observe oneself and active action play an equal role.
The method of "sand therapy"
The application allows the psychologist to solve the following problems:
· Creative development.
Indications for sand therapy
- various forms of behavioral disorders,
- difficulties in relationships with adults (parents, teachers) and peers,
- psychosomatic illnesses,
- increased fear, fears,
· - Difficulties related to changes in the family (divorce, appearance of the youngest child, etc.) and in social situations (adaptation to a technical school).
With sand therapy you can:
· Express feelings that are difficult to put into words;
· Opens internal reserves to resolve difficulties;
· Offers you the opportunity to find new ways to build relationships and resolve conflicts .
· Changes in attitudes towards oneself, one's past, present and future, towards important others as a whole, towards one's own destiny.
· Respond to negative emotional experiences in the process of creative expression
Contraindications to the use of sand therapy
Sand therapy cannot be performed in the following cases:
· Epilepsy or schizophrenia.
· A client with a very high level of fear.
· Allergy to dust and small particles.
· Lung disease.
· Skin diseases and cuts on the hands.
Equipment for "sand therapy":
1. Sand tub.A rectangular wooden tray measuring 49.5 x 5 x 7 cm. These dimensions are extremely important because the customer can see the entire composition and not individual fragments. The bottom and the inside of the pages should be painted blue to symbolize water and the unconscious. The outside of the tray should be beige to symbolize sand and awareness. Sand takes up about a third of the volume of the box. It should be clean, sifted, not large, but not too small, and preferably fairly light. It is important that it feels comfortable.
The work uses both dry and wet sand. To do this, you need a water container. The choice of which sand to work with always remains with the customer.
2. Collection of miniature figures and objects:
a) people of different sex and age, representatives of different historical epochs, different professions; Puppet families
b) fantastic creatures, characters from fairy tales, legends, myths, gods and goddesses of different nations, wizards, witches, etc.;
c) Wildlife and domestic animals (land, air and water inhabitants) as well as extinct and prehistoric representatives of the fauna, fantastic animals (unicorns, griffins);
e)houses, other apartments, furniture, bridges, stairs, fences, stairwells, special-purpose buildings (train stations, hospitals, schools, etc., temples of various religions, etc.;
e) household items;
g) trees and other plants;
H) Vehicles (land, water, air);
i) Toy swords, pistols and other weapons
Z. Natural objects.
Crystals and minerals, bones, fossils, pieces of metal and wood, dried flowers, leaves. dry twigs, seeds, shells, feathers, etc.
The collection should include thumbnails icons that are attractive and unattractive. beautiful and terrible; Symbols of good and bad, harmony and absurdity.
The collection should be represented by objects of various sizes, colors, structures and materials. They should be:
Big and small;
Colorless and light colors;
Transparent and opaque;
Made from different materials: metal, glass, clay, wood and plastic.
SAND THERAPY. PRINCIPLES AND STRUCTURE OF THE LESSON
The identity of a foreign specialist who practices sand therapy is protected by belonging to a particular school. He knows exactly what and when to offer the customer, which question and when to ask how to answer. The school gives him knowledge of the algorithm, technology.
The situation is different when Russian specialists use the sandpit. We only recently started developing the concept of belonging to a particular school. "Symbolist-Dramatists", "Psychoanalysts", "Jungians", "Gestalt Therapists" and "Art Therapists" appear. Once a specialist at a given school has gone through a full cycle of training, they'll know how to use the sandpit as part of their approach. However, most of our specialists do not have such training.
And as in a fairy tale, there are three ways, three possibilities:
Ø either stick to a particular school and embed sandboxing in a number of common methods and techniques;
Ø either work as an authoritative specialist who is “taught”;
Ø or “join” the client, follow them and trust their personal and professional intuition.
1. Joining a Client. As already mentioned, the sand picture contains enormous information about the inner world and the current state of humans. Understanding the client's desire to feel the rhythm of his sand painting, to recognize his problem and resource hypostases, to feel the unique figurative structure of the picture - all of this is part of the concept to join.Based on the affiliation, the specialist “follows” the customer and helps him to identify his own resources and weak points.
2. Sincere interestevents andland unfold in the sandpit. The specialist examines the client's image and combines, so to speak, two hypostases. On the one hand, this is a curious open-minded child who is very interested in what is happening in the world that the customer has created. On the other hand, this is a wise man who seeks the truth. Sincere interest in the client's inner world, emerging in the sandpit and joining the client - all this allows the specialist to build the positive internal dynamics of the person who asked for help.
3. Strict adherence to professional and universal ethics. Of course, in the presence of a client, a “sand therapist” cannot remove characters from the sandbox without rebuilding them, rebuilding the picture, or making a value assessment. A person's inner world is fragile enough and only a specialist's code of ethics and professionalism can protect the client from harm.
Depending on his own understanding of the goals of psychological work, a specialist can either focus on "reacting" or on self-awareness or on consciously modeling some conditions in the sandbox.
I am in charge of the following principlessand therapy:
1. "Live" properly, with which students play all sorts of situations - according to this principle sand therapy The imaginary moves into the real and vice versa.
2. Understand the experience and the situation - the student has the opportunity to see the situation in the sandpit from the side. This principle sand therapy can you correlate the game In real life, understand what is happening and find ways to solve the problem.
3. The principle of exchange is in sand games The student and the psychologist easily exchange ideas, thoughts and feelings. In this way sand therapy enables you to build partnerships.
4. The principle of revitalizing abstract symbols - sand therapy Allows you to get a feel for the reality of what is happening.
5. But the most important: sand therapy - The sand gameswhere "THE RULES DO NOT EXIST!"
The possibilities of "sand therapy"
Sandbox creativity for teenagers and adults is the process of interaction that creates a land that is a projection of the inner world.
The landscape in the sand area symbolizes the customer card. It can be mountains, plains, rivers, seas and oceans, roads, forests, etc. At the time of building the world, a person can enter a light trance state and concentrate on his problem and the way out of the problem situation. The landscape shows which path a person has chosen for himself and how he will take it.
In sand therapy, when working with a client, one can use fairy tales, legends, myths and similes, which are selected according to the client's problem. The act should be clear to the customer. In the course of the work, parables can be combined into a single metaphor. One metaphor can flow seamlessly into another.
Mostly used in my work with students « sand pictures":" Wonderland "," Me and the world that surrounds me "," City of friendship "," My life after ... years "," World of good and evil "," He and you ". Relationship story", "Fairytale City", "Hero's Feat".
By playing a variety of stories in the sand, a person gains experience with symbolic solutions for many life situations. This experience in the form of "material" goes into the unconscious and after a while there are changes in human behavior. In real life, he begins to apply his sand experience.
Sand therapy is therefore on the one hand an excellent development environment and on the other hand the process of transferring and projecting the inner world. When there is a character in the sand against whom the aggression is directed. This is a very high level of aggression.
3) conflict with loved ones.
At such moments, there can be a confrontation or a confrontation of heroes who at the moment are a reflection of people from the real environment.
The position of the figures in the sand also has a symbolic meaning and can give a lot of information. When the figure is placed in the center, it usually symbolizes the author of the picture. The second figure is a symbol of an important moment. When the creator of the picture buries the hero, he tries to suppress the still unconscious in the unconscious.
The peculiarity of filling the sandpit and all its sectors can provide a lot of interesting information. When the action is at the top, we have a dreamy person. The lower parts of the sandpit are filled with "profane" people. Moving right or left will indicate that this person is in possession of the future or the past.
During the analysis, it is important to take into account the uniqueness of the customers, especially their personal perception of the world.
ü Every psychoprophylaxis is carried out to prevent problematic situations.In the sandbox you can play any life situation, rethink it and find the right solution.
ü The sandbox is an excellent tool that allows you to understand many events in life: psychological trauma, relationship problems, personal growth.
ü Sand therapy enables a person, in contrast to other methods, to create his own world, which clears the way for the most secret thoughts, dreams and feelings. This world can be felt, changed, examined and even photographed.
ü Sand therapy is able to activate the resources of self-healing and the promotion of a person's mental health. Created images in the sand are a reflection of the inner world and unconsciousness that enable us to understand ourselves.
Psychosomatic disorders in children are a common reason for seeking medical and psychological, psychotherapeutic help. (Zakharov A. I., Andropov Yu F., Shevchenko Yu S., Nikolaeva V. V., Arina G. A.). These states are common in childhood, and this is mainly due to the fact that the child is faced with a wide variety of external factors, namely stress, changes in living conditions, frustrating situations and, in particular, internal factors, namely intrapsychic conflicts associated with it With difficulties in emotional and personal development, the body is often used through somatization to relieve emotional stress. (Arina GA, Nikolaeva VV, Shur M., Alexander F., Vinnikot DV et al.) Therefore, under various conditions, from bronchial asthma and diabetes mellitus to motor tics and headaches, one can identify and analyze psychological reasons for their occurrence and their course.
Accordingly, the method of psychotherapy, which enables us to work out and alleviate psychosomatic states, must deal directly with emotional processes and allow different parts of the psyche and personality, especially the unconscious, to manifest themselves outwardly. Jungiansandtherapy [i]along with game therapySuch an approach is such that, in non-verbal form, by playing with sand and rearranging miniature figures, as well as by making sand paintings, one can penetrate the deeper layers of the psyche and penetrate into unconscious emotions. The method makes it possible to determine in the manifested art form the emotional state of the child itself, the type of relationship between consciousness and the unconscious, between the self and the self, to see in the building itself. Working with sand, like playing spontaneously, allows you to find in the psyche the forces that drive it to healing and integration in order to resolve the conflict behind the psychosomatic symptom.
This brilliance and imagery of the method, to which the child's play of sand belongs and which is not imposed on anyone, is complemented by accompanying questions and special comments from the therapist. The technical simplicity of the sand game should not be misleading, as the depth and power of the method is very great and requires special training and your own therapeutic experience so that you, as a therapist, can use the integrating symbols and mental energies expressed in the picture for healing, to support the transformation of the soul in your client, child or adult. The psychologist who works in the sand play technique should be able to create a safe space in which the child can consciously and unconsciously manifest and do anything that they can manage, do or express in words during the session in the therapy room, would be beneficial to it, would participate in solving its problems.
Common methods of psychological work with psychosomatic states are body-oriented therapy, art therapy, the gestalt approach, etc. Each of them works out certain aspects of somatization in its own way. Art therapy enables images that accompany somatization to be expressed externally, for example on paper. Body therapy enables tactile language to expand and regularly release the frozen and fixed energy of the psyche through the release of the body. The Gestalt therapist orientates the client to free himself from emotions here and now, causes the client to harmonize his current state, causes the person to listen to their processes.
Jungian sand therapy combines all of these aspects in technically different ways. It also includes the expression of spontaneous images, the liberation of the body and tactile contact, the harmonization of feelings and sensations, life in every moment of the construction of the composition and the game, all based on an unconscious symbolism, a holistic psychological physical symbolism of the psyche can be realized. The strengthening of the axis of the self (integral psyche), the normalization of its function in the course of sand therapy, gives the child the opportunity to develop and to find a balance between instinctive, spontaneous and controlling, directing powers of the soul (E. Neumann).
To illustrate this, we will look at some sand compositions and play buildings made by children with psychosomatic symptoms who are undergoing analytical psychotherapy.
We can see how in any symbolic composition (on the carpet or in the sandpit) the child's problem and intrapsychic conflict are manifested. They also reflect the stage of transformation of the psyche in which the child is. By analyzing the buildings, you can find integrating forces and healing factors that will enable you to understand where the therapeutic process is moving in this child.
That is, there are at least three levels of analysis for the child's symbolic material:
- Intrapsychic problem, conflict, lack of emotional development
- Transformation stage, beginning of conflict resolution or defect transformation
- Healing factors that describe the prognosis of therapeutic work and emotional and personal development (teleological, prospective component).
Boy, 9 years old, chronic motor disorders. He was in therapy for two years, after six months of work the motor tics as a symptom disappeared, the analytical work continued in the emotional and personal area, with the structure of the ego and the processes of self-identification and self-identity.
Build and play on the carpet. "House of Frogs". On the carpet, the boy built a house, arranged rooms in the house, allocated a dining room, a bathtub and a bedroom. Small frogs live in this house, and in front of the house two large female frogs hold swords in their hands. Big frogs guard the house. Construction and home improvement motifs are a characteristic motif for this client at a certain point in therapy, when the tics as a physical symptom have already receded.
What does this composition tell us? We see at least three important symbols here. This is a house in itself, little frogs are children and large frogs are female protectors.
How is the boy's problem expressed in this picture?
Building a house in the game means the desire to find your inner home, to strengthen and equip your inner space, an inner container for emotions, sensations, desires and thoughts. This house is very feminine, very maternal, which can speak about the boy's key problem, the problem of identity. It is as if this child cannot answer the question of whether it is a boy or a girl, since it is now likely, unconsciously, that it identifies itself with its mother as a child who has not yet resolved the Oedipus conflict. The feminine identity is still ingrained and it can be said that there are certain difficulties in going through the oedipal stage and that her masculine identity is in the shadows and does not manifest itself to a sufficient extent. Of course, if we talk about the etiology of his condition, then this feature is associated with difficulties in relations with his mother, mainly associated with a very strong symbiosis, fusion between them. Hence the child identifies with the maternal figure.
Another problem this client faces is the difficulty of dealing with and experiencing aggression. Aggressive drives are unnecessarily blocked and perceived as destructive. Indeed, motor tics are often associated with suppressed aggression, aggressive energies cannot sublimate and strengthen the ego, but can become a physical symptom. The difficulty of integrating aggression is symbolically expressed in the fact that the female figure is endowed with aggressive elements and the characters against whom protection is required are not represented in the composition. We can also say that in the composition we see the theme of the unmanifestation of the shadow. Frogs protect, but we don't see enemies attacking. That means that shadow projections onto someone were not sufficiently realized. Joyce McDougall, a classic of psychosomatic research in French psychoanalysis, suggests that storing projections is a characteristic of the psyche with a psychosomatic structure. In this case, archaic unconscious shadow contents cannot express themselves with projections and are therefore expressed physically (McDougall J.). And this prevents differentiation, the development of the unconscious, from making emotional personality formation more difficult.
Another important question is, does a child identify with frogs or adult frogs? This is a question of identity, how are these different parts of the psyche related to young frog children and adult frog protectors? The division into such pairs of figures largely reflects the fear of growing up, the difficulties of growing up and the unconscious fear of future storms of youth.
Let's look at this composition based on the transformation phases. Which transformative mental processes does this composition speak of? The child built this composition after the somatic symptom faded, but his psyche structure is still not strong enough to ensure that these tics do not return. Therefore, the boy still needs psychotherapeutic work, the study of various aspects of the interior.
Frogs as heroes are a pretty strange choice, a frog is not a winning hero, not a knight, not a pirate, not a boy. We can only remember the fairy tale about the frog princess, in which this frog is one of the main characters, and we can also remember the German fairy tale of the Brothers Grimm, the "Frog King" or Eisen Heinrich, in which the frog is a enchanted prince who should be enchanted by a girl princess. We can also remember the modern cartoon "The Princess and the Frog". This is a strange picture to identify and it is not anthropomorphic (not humanoid). A frog is a lower animal, not a mammal, but an amphibian, i.e. can live on land and in water. One can imagine that a boy would have to identify with a lion, a rhinoceros, and a dragon, and it is difficult to imagine how to identify with a frog. But why does this picture appear?
In this case, the frog is a part of the child's psyche that can be in the environment of consciousness and in the environment of the unconscious (both on land and in water), thus reflecting a certain degree of integration of the psyche that has already been achieved , a lower alchemical transformation. This integration enables the child's psyche to use and exchange energy and consciousness as well as the unconscious.
It is all the more important to point out that the frog is also a primitive projection of the boy's body image, the unconscious body image. In alchemy we find engravings in which a frog or a toad is involved in the process of transforming lower matter into gold. This is a transition phase in which an unconscious and physical integration has already taken place. So the symptom is gone, but the child's ego has not yet been strengthened sufficiently.
Do-it-yourself - talks about the process, the stage of development of internal space, when the child himself learns how to work, what happens to him at different times, and this is the process of such elaboration of his place, his internal space. This stage is preceded by the opportunity to re-enter and work on the oedipal conflict, to rethink the relationship between the sexes, to develop their self-identity and sexual identity.
We can say in this way that this composition is characteristic of the phallic stage of psychosexual development and shows us the inner phallic mother of the child preparing for the transition to the oedipal stage.
What do we see healing factors in the composition? It involves a movement to master aggression, figures who own and control swords, to develop inner space, to develop the ability to take care of oneself (strengthening the container and the inner mother, it's like when big frogs are up small watch out) and here lies the vector of primitive emotion integration sensations, not somatization by the body. This gives the child the opportunity to better understand what they are experiencing, what feelings they have, what they can do with these emotions, how they can name, express and, above all, understand them. Use emotions as signals of what is happening to him, what is happening in his inner world.
We see in this way that the use of toys and the game itself enable the child to create such integrating symbols, to develop them. A spontaneous game shows what stage the child is at and what interpretations a psychotherapist can make to help the child develop and overcome their problems.
Case 2. Girl, 7 years old, behavioral violation, outside aggression, overeating as a psychosomatic symptom. "City of Mud."
Oral psychosomatic symptom - cravings for food, insatiable hunger, cravings to eat. Overeating in itself is often associated with the fact that eating is subconsciously equated with a good internal object, food is the equivalent of love. It is as if a girl can ingest a good object through food, but has difficulty not doing it literally, symbolically, or emotionally.
The city of mud is where black women live. They are black because they are all covered in mud, their houses are in the city, and there is a spring of mud in the center where they bathe regularly. The source is located in the crater of an extinct volcano. The symbolism of the mud makes us say that this sand composition certainly reflects the symbols of the anal stage of psychosexual development. We see that in the middle of the sand play there is a volcano, a mud spring and women come there. And the dirt is perceived positively here. You can be dirty, you can enjoy the dirt. The triumph of anal pleasure, which is likely forbidden, taboo, is impossible in the family and the inner world of the girl. The client has few opportunities for positive fantasies that she is bad about living it. As if the picture reflects such a bad self of the girl she enjoys from. But this pleasure cannot be shown and integrated into other parts of life, since in the composition the entire sandpit is occupied by the city of mud, no other space is represented there.
Bathing in the spring symbolizes renewal, pleasure, regression and relaxation, dissolution (solution as an alchemical operation). This image also reflects the ability to enjoy the body and suggests hidden masturbation and fantasy. All of this speaks of a great desire to enjoy the body, the need for this pleasure for the psyche. Overeating also portends forbidden pleasures. The girl's tough superego prevents the integration of her physicality and primitive sexuality, and this client was also stuck before the oedipal stage, did not resolve the oedipal conflict, did not come out. Hence, to some extent, it is a compromise between accessible oral and anal pleasures (food obsession, aggressive behavior). The same is confirmed by the lack of male images in the composition, all the figures are women. As if the male world were incomprehensible and dangerous, we cannot imagine that. Also, none of the heroines in this building is the main one, i.e. it is not clear which figure a girl can identify with, many female figures support the identification.
The healing factor in this example lies in the normalization of anti-sociality (inappropriate behavior, forbidden pleasures). In this anti-sociality there are opportunities to express and integrate aggression towards the mother, the desire to claim a father and thereby develop her feminine identity without fear of losing support in the relationship between the parents.
Case 3. A 6 year old boy with atopic dermatitis in his arm. Very poor composition, a crater in the lower left corner of the sandpit and an elongated oval blue stone is buried in it, which is hidden there. The boy does not comment on the composition. The stone in the crater evokes associations like a child in the womb and reflects the boy's express desire to become small again and return to his mother's stomach. The child spontaneously expresses this desire after being built in the sand. This sandpit reflects the boy's desire for a great regression, for a merging with his mother, in which the mother is the womb and the mother's breast. This is a very primitive, archaic oral picture. In order to be in the mother's belly, never to part with her and to talk about the belly with everyone, the boy expresses his fantasies and, as we see them, he expressed them beforehand in sandpit pictures.
Such a wish tells us about the symbiotic pursuit and that the child was deprived of emotional maternal space for some reason, possibly because the mother was depressed postpartum or was bewitched by some other people, which gave her emotional energy through this and not through his son cemented the unsatisfied, normal desire for regression and fusion at this time of life (Elyachev K., Stern D., Vinnikot DV, Dolto F.).
Allergic dermatitis figuratively tells us that it is like an allergy is caused by the outside world, any possibility of separation from the mother. The regressive desire to merge denies any separation from the mother, and then the likelihood of losing the mother would be zero. As if the boy can't take his hands off the outside world, he doesn't want to get rid of his mother. (Marty P., Dolto F.)
For such a client, the ability to have a space of his own, the space of the sandpit within the therapy, is of crucial importance, as he is willing to give himself up in his regressive desire. On the one hand this is omnipotence - I will be in the mother and I will be like a mother and on the other hand this is renunciation of me. Psychological work with such a child should be associated with strengthening his space, with the opportunity for him to fantasize, to express himself in a drawing, to play, to send, to create such products of the unconscious that would show him himself that he exists as a subject, would give him the opportunity to appropriate it is a feeling of subjectivity.
Psychosomatic symptoms indicate a pronounced emotional weakness in the boy, as if the boy refused to develop, since development is the death of merging with his mother, which is equated with the loss of the mother.
All of these examples show that psychological work, in its depth, should be based on working with the unconscious, on the ability to reveal unconscious conflicts and fantasies and make them understandable for the therapist, and on the ability to deal with them in various ways through the Play, use holistic characters, through verbal integration, unite transference-countertransference processes and understand these naturally in the therapist's head in the form of interpretations. It is this type of work that makes it possible to understand what is behind the physical symptoms of certain patients, develop a strategy to solve the child's difficulties and transform their psyche, and formulate appropriate recommendations for parents. The compositions clearly show what happens in the child's inner world, where his development should move and how we as therapists can create suitable conditions to realize their development, to work out their unconscious phantasies and to confront them, as in the latter case phantasies do not correspond to reality. Compositions teach us to interpret the psychological content behind the symptom, to cause it and to indicate what is necessary to strengthen the structure of the ego. In the course of psychotherapy, the child acquires an ego that offers him protection from somatization in the event of stress, conflict, frustration or when transitioning from one age group to another. Sand play and game therapy offer us a wide range of work opportunities as well as an analytical interpretation of the game and sand images.
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- Leiner X .: Catatomical pictorial experience with him. I.L. Obukhov. M., Eidos 1996
- Leiner X .: Fundamentals of depth psychological symbolism, Journal of the Practical Psychologist, 1996, No. 3, 4
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- Marty P. Allergic Object Relations // Collection Psychology and Psychopathology of the Skin, M., 2011
- Mother Child. Clinician M., 1994
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Jungian sand therapy offers the client a therapeutic opportunity to express their inner world as well as the archetypal world of the soul by constructing symbolic paintings in a wooden sand bowl and playing with miniature figures and natural materials, stones, water, sand, etc.
Psychoanalytic play therapy enables the child to create a symbolic game that represents an actual production of the unconscious that has to be interpreted promptly by the analyst or psychologist.
The self is the archetype of integrity - the fullest human potential and the unity of the individual as a whole. The self is the regulating center of the psychic.
More in Blum G. Psychoanalytical Personality Theory, M., 1996, McDougall J. Thousand Eros. SPb, 1999
This feature is characteristic of children with psychosomatic states as mentioned by various authors (McDougall J., Winnicott D.V. et al.). Her aggression, especially aggression towards the mother, remains unintegrated for a long time.
Shadows - hidden or unconscious aspects of the psychological structure of the personality, its negative side, which are usually rejected by the conscious ego, but which affect a person's thinking and behavior. The sum of all unpleasant personal qualities, something primitive, infantile, unadjusted. The task of analytical therapy is not to exclude the shadow from the patient's life, but to recognize its presence in order to gain the ability to integrate it into the ego and to coexist with it.
Original title: The Princess and the Frog, 2009, USA, Regie: Ron Clements, John Musker
The frog, an animal belonging to the moon, is associated with rain, symbolizes fertility, fertility, eroticism, also embodies the dark and undifferentiated primary substance, the element of watering and the original slime, the basis of the matter created, is a female symbol.
Who of us didn't play in the sandpit in childhood, didn't build castles? On the coast, as if we were being drawn to an invisible force to build a fancy castle. Ocean waves roll by, washing away our buildings and we keep building.
Sand is an amazing material that is pleasant to the touch and so malleable that you can create whole fragments of the world, and so on and so forth.
By experiencing the unique mystery of being, a person comes into a state of inner balance and frees himself from everyday excitement.
We dip our hands in the sand and amazing sensations embrace us. It can sprinkle through your fingers and can be shaped. Sand is an unknown and famous universe from which you can create your own unique world ...
Jungian sand therapy technique
The sand therapy technique emerged as part of Jung's analytical approach and is largely based on working with the symbolic content of the unconscious as a source of inner growth and development. The author of this method, which emerged in the 1950s, is considered to be the young Swiss analyst Dora Kalf.
It is believed that the origins of "sand therapy" - in the book of the famous science fiction writer G. Wells "Games on the floor" (1911). In it he describes how his sons, who played with miniature figures, found expression and relief from difficulties in dealing with family members and with each other. This book inspired child psychiatrist Margaret Lowenfeld, who founded the London Institute for Child Psychology, to put miniature figures on the shelves of her office. The first child to see these figures took them to the sandpit that was nearby and started playing with them in the sand. This was the cornerstone for the “Weltbautechnik” - a diagnostic and therapeutic technique that was developed and described in detail by Margaret Lowenfeld. Dora Kalf, trained by M. Lowenfeld, saw in this methodology not only a possibility to help children to express their pain sensations and to react to them, but also a possibility to strengthen communication with the deep, unconscious layers of the psyche and the Process of individualization and the development of the transcendental function (mental function that occurs in the psyche) to support the result of the tension between consciousness and unconsciousness and the union that supports it) that it supports at KG Young.
The main principle that Dora Kapf puts at the center of her work is "the creation of a free and protected space" in which the patient - a child or an adult - can express and explore his world and his often incomprehensible or disturbing experiences into visible ones and transforms tangible images.
“The image in the sand can be understood as a three-dimensional image of one aspect of the state of mind. An unconscious problem is playing out in the sandpit, like in a drama, the conflict is shifted from the inner world to the outer world and becomes visible. "(Dora Kalf, Sandspiel, 1980)
Two wooden bowls with sand measuring 60 x 70 x 10 are used for the work (an area that can easily be seen with the eye). One bowl is filled with dry sand and the other is used when the customer wants to work with wet sand. The inside of the tray is painted blue - so the bottom of the tray can represent the sea or the river and also serves as a symbol for the unconscious. You also need many different characters from which the customer can choose what attracts him or, conversely, scares or repulses.
The following items are commonly used in sand therapy:
- people - different people - children, adults, representatives of different professions, fairy tale characters (magicians, witches), gods and goddesses of different nations, angels, etc.;
- animals - fish (sharks, dolphins, goldfish) and other aquatic mammals (seals, walruses, whales), amphibians, reptiles, rodents, domestic animals and predators, birds, insects (ants, flies, beetles, spiders, grasshoppers, butterflies) - ie various representatives of the animal world;
- plant - trees, bushes, flowers. Artificial and natural plants can be used;
® objects of the sky - sun, moon, stars, rainbow, clouds, lightning;
- habitat objects - fences, gates, traffic signs, bridges;
- accessories - pieces of fabric, threads, buttons, chains, small carnations, coins.
- natural objects - pebbles, bones, pieces of metal and wood, shells, seeds, acorns, chestnuts, feathers, dry plants, crystals, polished glasses.
Filling parts of the sandpit and its sectors will tell a lot of interesting things about a person. For example, if the action in the sandpit shifts noticeably upwards, we have a person who is prone to dreaming. If he doesn't have the balance sheet numbers below, he needs to work out the implementation aspect of the plan and make plans. People "profane" fill the lower areas of the sandpit. In this case, the development of the imagination in classroom therapy becomes a balancing moment. Shifting left or right shows a person who either owns the past or the future. The analysis of “sand pictures” is also based on the scheme of the separation of the tray: past - present - future (from left to right) and consciously - unconsciously (from top to bottom); analyzed and selected figures based on symbolic meaning, how they are, rotated, also in relation to each other, what is next to them, etc.
The use of miniature figures in sand therapy combined into a specific act suggests the performance of the internal theater of personality. Figures can symbolize sub-personalities (a kind of "mini I" that has certain characteristics - fears, needs, beliefs, etc.) of the author of the sand painting. By observing the relationships between the characters in the sand picture, a person can identify the currently updated sub-personalities and enter into a dialogue with them. In this case, the focus is on building a dialogue with the characters.It turns out that during the course of sand therapy, the client establishes a new relationship with himself. However, the numbers used in the sandbox can not only reflect a person's sub-personality, but also symbolize real people and the phenomena of the environment in which the customer is involved. In a sandy environment, real life situations can be dramatized in relation to which a person has certain difficulties. In this case, sand therapy is a miniature psychodrama. The advantage of the psychodramatic approach is that it does not require the help of the group to create the performances - all roles are played by toy figures. The sandbox thus creates the prerequisites for performance not only in group mode, but also in detail.
a ritual object.
- Miniature clocks, scales, pendulums.
and caskets, boxes.
And miniature musical instruments.
and multicolored glass and crystal balls and much more.
3. Technical devices
Camera, a series of photographic films.
Sand therapy process
The duration of sand therapy with adolescents and adults is on average 50-60 minutes. The length of a consultation depends on the age of the client and the characteristics of his intellectual development.
The frequency of consultations depends on the severity of the problem. Recommended 1-2 times a week.
Complete sand therapy can include 12-15 sessions.
At the first consultation, the client must be introduced to the organization of his process if a positive decision is made to use sand therapy.
- Sandbox demonstration. Typically, the customer will be told, “Look, our sandbox is half filled with sand so the blue sides are visible. Why do you think this is necessary? Indeed, the sides symbolize heaven. The sandpit still has a secret: if you and I share the sand, we will find a blue bottom. What do you think and why is it necessary? Indeed, the ground symbolizes water. However, if you feel that symbolic water is not enough, please use a water jug. Dry sand easily turns into wet sand. You can design any landscape - mountainous, hilly and flat. In short, everything is subject to the will of your imagination.
- Demonstration of a collection of figures. Typically, the customer is told: “You see, there are a lot of different figures. You can look at it, hold it in your hands. There are trees and houses and people and a lot more. When you create your own world, your own picture in the sandpit, you can use different characters. "
- Build a sand picture. Instruction: “Dial through
\ u003e Shuysta, all the characters that attract or repel you, choose as many characters as you want. We have an hour, M You can determine the time yourself. Everything you (■ die, you must put on a tray (in the sandpit). "
- Discussion of the sand picture. When discussing a picture with a client and the experiences associated with it, the psychologist does not give any comments or recommendations. He only "mirrors" them
- shu his own experiences. The main questions that psychologists ask are emphasizing the importance of the experience for the client in creating them
full-time picture and the place of this experience in the overall picture of life | the tent.
The most important questions the psychologist poses to the client
The main questions the psychologist poses to the client can be:
- If the tablet were a picture, what name would that picture have?
- What are your impressions of the process of creating a sand picture?
- What is particularly important or useful to you in this picture?
- How can the plot or characters of your composition help you in your life?
- Perhaps you've made a discovery or an important observation for yourself: if so, would you like to talk about it?
Hence, the psychologist's strategy is to provide maximum assistance to the client in understanding himself and the laws of his own life.
Main features of sand paintings
Key features of sand paintings include:
- Energy and information field sand painting.
- The basic idea of the sand picture.
- The act (or acts) of a sand painting.
- Conflict content of the sand picture.
- The resource content of the sand image.
- The symbolic field of sand painting.
- Energy and information field sand painting
Most of the time the psychologist has an appropriate reaction to the energy Tiku-Bild, that is, it switches on a kind of "working condition". His first sign is a sincere interest in the image, a desire to learn about it as much as possible.
We still know too little about the energy information field of the sand image, but we understand the importance of this Key I trait. In fact, the energy information field of the sand picture is the main part of knowledge about the composition, but it is still difficult for us to formalize this knowledge. Hence, other key features come to the rescue.
- The basic idea of the sand picture
The basic idea of the sand picture reflects the real life values, needs, the "zone of proximal development" of the author. In other words, the main idea tells us what is most important to the customer at the moment. What he works on consciously or unconsciously, what he strives for. You can find out the basic idea of a sand painting in at least three ways.
- Ask the client to name the world they created in the sandbox.
- Offer to answer one of the following questions:
what is this world
what kind of country is that?
® What is the most important thing that the people of this country can say to the people of other countries and worlds?
I am What can we learn from the experiences of traveling in this country and in this world?
- Offer to describe the sand world to the customer.
- The act (or acts) of a sand painting
The representation of the sand picture reflects the dynamics of an internal process. Sometimes it happens that there are two or more connected diagrams in one picture. For example two
fans, three worlds, two or more main characters. It happens that the actions are dedicated to a character, but they describe different age-related intervals of his path: childhood, adolescence, maturity.
Usually you can subdivide the image according to the Pi-Fi type plot dynamics:
Dynamic images, as a rule, they have a hero (or a hero) who goes somewhere, tries hard, wants something, seeks something. In the 11th picture we find such heroes on a certain route: we can see their past (the world from which they emerged) and their future (the world in which they aspire).
The advantage of dynamic images for the psychologist is that the client himself is already talking about the goals of the consultation!, Encryption (but in encrypted form). He knows why he has to come, what is to be received, what that naturally means.
Static Image- This is a still image of a specific action. Time stood still in the old sand picture. The heroes of such paintings, as a rule, lead a sedentary lifestyle. Or we capture them and the moment of an action (work, play, eating, bathing, sunbathing, hunting, etc.). But in any case, this is a habit for them. To identify the property in a static image, you can give the client the following tasks: “Tell the story of this land. How did it all start, who made it, how did it happen? What does this country expect in the future? Imagine the first day of creation in this land has come to an end, the night has come, the day is still new. Tell us what happened in this country. "
If there are no significant events in the country, then the dynamics of the plot is manifested only in a change in the types of activities of the heroes. This can mean that a person has found a certain “stability zone” for himself and has not yet tried to leave it. Apparently he needs some time to “live” in this country, to gather strength for travel and adventure.
In mixed sand paintingstatic well-being is disturbed by the dynamics of a certain hero.
Mixed images can contain two worlds: static and dynamic. In any case, the mixed picture speaks of internal confrontation, contradiction and the search for stability. This type of painting illuminates the contradicting content of sand compositions .
- Conflict content of sand pictures
The contradicting content of sand pictures reflects the inner tension of a person. It's explicit and hidden.
The contradicting content of the sand picture can be described by the following features:
- degree of aggression;
- aggression orientation;
- targeted aggression;
- the dynamics of the investigation of internal conflicts.
Degree of aggression can be high, medium and low.
The level of aggression is high when battles are played in the sandbox or when there is a character in relation to whom active aggressive actions are manifested.
If the heroes of the picture are only preparing for war or in an externally calm world there are a certain number of armed figures who are not involved in active hostilities, then we can talk about the average level of aggression. If the sand painting is a peaceful sight, we observe a low level of aggression.
Direction of aggression can manifest as autoaggression and heteroaggression. Auto-aggression shows in the destructive actions in relation to the protagonist of the sand story, in the difficulties the author faces. Hetero-aggression is expressed in the confrontation of armies in the sandpit, as well as in the aggressive actions of the protagonist in relation to other characters and elements of the composition.
Targeting aggression shows the recipient of aggressive actions. The character (s) the aggressive flow is directed at can be associated with the client with a specific real life person (mother, sister, father, grandmother, husband, wife, child, boss, girlfriend, etc.).
- The resource content of the sand image
The resource content of the sand picture serves to support the ichological advice and is an integral concealment.
Manifestation of the resource content:
- The presence of a special positive energy in the picture. Sometime1 o the action of the picture or the composition as a whole warms the soul. If you ask for it, you can update the person's resource hypostases.
- There is a creative idea in a picture or story about it
- thundering. When the psychologist draws the client's attention to this, his resource skills can be updated.
- The action of the sand picture is life-affirming - and you can build a line of advice on that.
- Feeling relaxed after a conflict. Now that good has triumphed over bad, you can "start a new life".
- Flexibility and ingenuity of the hero of the composition in finding ways to overcome difficulties. This can usually be deduced from the client's story about the painting. If the hero combines direct aggression, cunning, protection, avoidance, mutual support and other ways to overcome a difficult situation, then you can talk about his adaptive resources. He has a high potential to adapt to different conditions and to successfully solve difficult situations.
- A person's potential resource abilities manifest themselves in their sand picture as wonderful objects that bring liberation or a happy solution to the situation. We can then contact them to support and strengthen the client's self.
- The presence of assistants.
- The symbolic field of sand painting
The symbolic field of the sand picture reflects information about the inner world of the customer, which is encoded in pictures and symbols. To the researcher, this key feature is perhaps the most attractive.
Conventionally, to facilitate understanding, we divide the symbolic field of the sand painting of the sodium part. The symbolic field contains:
3 Zak. 635
- the symbolism of the spatial arrangement of objects in the sandpit;
- symbolism of the landscape of the sand pictures;
- symbolism of the objects used in the sand picture.
We will look at each part of the symbolic field of the sand picture in turn. If we break it up into sodium parts, we will remember that they exist in unity with one another.
An important prerequisite for performing a symbolic analysis is determining the location of the customer relative to the sandbox.
The surface of the sand painting can be divided vertically into three equal parts and horizontally into three equal parts, as in the Rubik's cube. Thus the "sand sheet" is divided into nine sectors. Every vertical and horizontal has a certain symbolic meaning. We give it to those with a leading hand - the right one. Everything is mirrored for left-handers.
The "female" part. It symbolizes the past, relationships with important women, mother, relationship at home.
The left side is what a person already has that he can rely on.
The left side can also symbolize the inner world of a person; reflect his deep personal processes.
Presence. The central part symbolizes the current human processes. What he thinks, what he strives for, what matters to him. This is especially true for the figure that is placed in the center of the picture. Often it symbolizes the client's ego, the image with which he is unconsciously connecting
The "male" part. Symbolizes the future. Social processes. Relationships in society: kindergarten, school, institute, work. May reflect a relationship with a spouse. It also symbolizes plans for the future, fears associated with the future.
Relationships with great men, father, brother, husband, friend. Sometimes it symbolizes the limitations in implementing the plan.
The upper part symbolizes mental processes. What a person thinks, fantasizes, plans, remembers.
The central part symbolizes emotional processes. What kind of person experiences, what he feels, what he worries about, what he enjoys.
The lower part symbolizes the sphere of real actions, human actions. What he did, what he did, what he wants to do. Land, ground beneath your feet. As you can see, the interpretation of the symbolic meaning is multi-valued and multilevel. Because of this, the psychologist looks for Goth meanings that most closely match the state of the client and the idea of the image.
Even a cursory glance at the spatial arrangement of the fig stone in the sandpit can provide important information about the customer's particularities. To do this, you have to answer the question: "Which parts of the sandpit are most full and which are empty?"
Figures sand painting.
The numbers in the upper left corner symbolize the processes associated with either past memories or thoughts of an Odom, about a mother, about another important woman.
The figures in the upper middle part can reflect what the client is currently thinking and fantasizing about.
In the upper right corner there are usually numbers that reflect dreams, future plans and thoughts about interaction in society: from kindergarten to school to work. Interaction with the father, other eminent men.
Enclosed in the middle left part of the figure can symbolize past emotional experiences associated with the house, the mother and the significant woman.
The most important figures are concentrated in the central part. On the one hand, they describe the current emotional state. On the other hand, value pursuits, something meaningful, it doesn't matter whether it is conscious or not.
The figures in the right middle section reflect the aspirations and wishes of the author of the sand picture as well as emotions about the future, men, social self-realization.
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Swiss psychologist and philosopher Karl Gustav Jung first drew attention to the therapeutic effects of playing sand on mental disorders in children and adults. He began using this method for psycho-correction of his patients and went on to describe it. This method has been given the name Jungian. It found wide application in practical psychology.
The undoubtedly therapeutic effect of the Jungian method allows us to achieve serious results in the treatment of psychosomatic disorders in children of preschool and elementary school ages. In addition, playing with sand is of great help in developing the skills of preschoolers. This technique is called sandplay.
Therapeutic sand games for preschool children: What do you need for games in the Jungian sandpit?
- The sand game is used wooden boxPainted inside and outside with blue or blue paint. The box must be waterproof, as sand must be wetted during the game. The dimensions of the box for 1-3 children should be - 50x70x8 cm.These dimensions are not chosen randomly, this is the optimal visual field of perception of the child, it is able to cover it as a whole. Blue or blue color is a symbol of sky and water, in addition, these colors have a calming effect on the child's psyche. The box can be made of other materials, but wood is preferred.
- At 2/3 of the volume, the box is covered with sand. The sand should be clean and sifted, you can use river or sea sand, the main thing is that it should not be too small and not too big. It should be loose and pleasant to the touch.
- For games in the sandpit you need collection of miniature toys. The size of the toy should not exceed 8 cm.
Sand therapy toys:
- Human figures, dolls, miniature figures.They can be selected separately, or you can buy toys in the store according to separate thematic groups.
- Figures of animals.Numbers from the Kinder Surprise will go, you can either yourself. It can be wild, domestic, prehistoric animals.
- Housewares: Children's dishes, houses, perfume and toilet water bottles, cream boxes.
- Fairy tale characters Good and evil.
- Cartoon characters and cartoon characters.
- Jewellery, Souvenirs.
- Natural elements: Twigs, flowers, driftwood, interesting tree branches.
All of these treasures should be kept in a specific place as if they were living in their house.
Sand play lessons - which games are your child interested in sand therapy?
People learn the world with 5 senses and the oldest of them is a tactile sensation. A child's first sensation in the world is a tactile sensation. And unconsciously, people are used to trusting him. It is this trust in tactile-kinesthetic sensations that makes therapeutic sand games so productive. Therefore, you need to start play therapy with a tactile acquaintance with the sand. There are a number of techniques that can be used to correctly and correctly create these classes.
Introduction to Sand by Sandplay - Games for Young Children
Have the children do the following with sand:
- Slide your palms over the sand in zigzags, in circular motions, like ashinkas, like sleds, like snakes.
- Make the same movements with the edges of the palms of your hands and discuss with the child the difference in the prints. Give the child the opportunity to explain to themselves what the difference is. Try not to correct the child, not to force your opinion on them, but to encourage and praise them in every possible way.
- Collect sand in the palms of your hands and pour it into a thin stream. Express the sensations you experienced. Get it right, then left palm, then both at the same time.
- Bury your hands in the sand and then "find" them. All of this is done in a playful way. The question is, "Where did our pens go?" And then the joy that the pens were found.
- Place your open palm on the sand and close your eyes. Then the adult pours sand on the finger, and the baby has to guess which finger the sand will be poured on and move it as if greeting the sand.
- Run your fingers through the sand and leave marks on it. Or play like a piano in the sand. All of this must be done with comments.
Sand Therapy: Exercises for children to develop motor skills, relieve emotional stress and aggression
When the child interacts with sand while playing, they will have their first reflective experiences (introspection), learn to recognize and identify their sensations, and the fine motor skills of their hands will develop. When a child tries to express his feelings, speech and thinking develop, so the importance of sand therapy can hardly be overestimated.
Sand therapy exercises
- An adult and a child leave prints of their hands on a flat sand surface. First they just press their palm against the sand and then do so with the back of their hand. At the same time the adult says what he is feeling right now. And asks the child to tell about his feelings. A young child is not going to be verbose, you need to ask him the most important questions. What kind of sand? Smooth? Dry? What is the difference in sensations when you touch the back of your hand? This teaches the child to listen to his feelings, to classify feelings as pleasant or uncomfortable. It seems that a procedure as simple as touching provides a wealth of thought-provoking experiences when done consciously. Such are taught to characterize their feelings.
- Use your fingers, knuckles, palm ribs, and fists to create different patterns in the sand, then figure out what they look like. You can see flowers, snowflakes, twigs, or animal tracks. The imagination is immense, it just needs to be aroused in a child gradually and inconspicuously. This exercise has a positive effect on the emotional state of children.
- Have a sand shower with your kids. Let it first be a fine rain of sand that fits in the palm of your hand, then the rain intensifies, the sand is scooped up with two palms, but for showering you can use a children's bucket as an auxiliary material. It is important that the child be aware of the idea of their participation in world events. He will be less afraid of him. The world will cease to be hostile to him. Exercise helps to get rid of stress, stress, aggression.
How is sand therapy used to correct emotional, language, and other problems in children?
How does sand therapy help with psychosomatic illnesses?
It is very difficult for children to express in words what deeply worries and disturbs them. They have a small vocabulary and even adults cannot always get to the source of internal discomfort where the baby can cope with this overwhelming task. But fears and doubts torment his soul and this mental pain is transferred to the body. So there is a tick, stutter, enuresis, aggressive behavior.
Psychologists call such illnesses psychosomatic. The treatment of such diseases is medically unsuccessful. Here it is treated like in homeopathy - like like.
Psychologists say that in situations like this you need to project your insides onto the outside world.You can make your fortune, but young children don't paint well. They are upset, crying, and adults cannot understand them. By reproducing inner experiences in therapeutic games with sand, children are freed from the oppressive burden of inner experiences and recover.
Adults who observe their behavior during play learn to understand, decipher and respond to their behavior appropriately. Such games are called projectiveand its value is difficult to overestimate.
Jungian sand therapy is one such approach, in addition to wildlife therapy, which enables subconscious emotions to penetrate the deeper layers of the psyche in non-verbal form by playing with sand and rearranging miniature figures as well as by constructing sand pictures. The method makes it possible, in the manifested art form, to determine the emotional state of the child's client, the type of relationship between conscious and unconscious, between the self and the self in the building itself. Working with sand, like playing spontaneously, allows you to find in the psyche the forces that drive it to healing and integration in order to resolve the conflict behind the psychosomatic symptom. This brightness and imagery of the method, which includes an independent and not imposed play of a child with sand, is supplemented by accompanying questions and special comments from the therapist. (Mariya Igorevna Prilutskaya - clinical psychologist (MV Lomonosov Moscow State University), child psychotherapist, specialist in analytical work with psychosomatic disorders in children and adults, Moscow Association for Analytical Psychology (MAAP).
Projective game examples:
- "My family". The child is offered to choose from a variety of objects those that he needs to restore his family. Adults have no control over his choice. Ask the child to house their family members as they choose. Offer him a time where it is evening and the whole family is home and everyone is doing their own thing. Notice who is at the center of the composition and ask the child why that particular person is central. Ask how it relates to the "center". Ask about general family relationships. Who lives best in the family and why. Believe that analyzing its composition will provide you with a lot of new and useful information about your child and family. Hire a professional psychologist for a more thorough analysis.
- "My friends".The child receives situational game parameters. He has to choose the characters and name them with the names of his friends. Don't be surprised if the characters are made up and you don't make friends among real people. Many discoveries are made in reconstructing your situation. You can learn about your child's problems and help your child overcome difficulties communicating with children in kindergarten or school. And he will successfully overcome these difficulties during the game, which as a result of the transfer will change the situation in real life.
- "Fairy tale."You can offer your child to build their fairy tale kingdom and populate it with good and bad characters. The child himself has to play the role of a fighter against evil. An unlimited number of miniatures can be involved in this game, which he can freely change. Here he is the master of the situation. If the child is not disturbed, it will reveal such deep problems and fears that adults were not even aware of. In addition, you need to gently guide the child during the game in order to overcome these fears. He should be told that he is the master here and that he always has a choice and the opportunity to do what he wants. The realization that he is all powerful and can change any situation will make the child happy. Later, and in real life, the child will become more confident and less anxious.
V. Andreeva, sand therapist, Jungian analyst:
Using the sand therapy method invites us on a journey where sometimes it is not only, but always interesting. The process unfolds like a fairy tale to the inner deep meaning, dream, lost parts of you and relationships. The figures that are brought to life in the paintings, how they connect the past and the future, give me the opportunity to get to know myself and to advance on the path of individualization, they keep me amazed and inspired.
N. Skibinskaya, Analytical Psychologist, Sand Therapist:
There are children who put their hands on their elbows in the sand and splash around in the sandpit like in water. You have a happy smile on your face and you say, “How good! How nice! "At this moment, I don't want to talk about anything and there is peace and quiet.
Other children are sometimes even afraid of touching the sand. One child slowly lowered his finger on the side of the sandpit and looked me straight in the eye as if afraid of being burned. So do they usually touch the water to understand if it's hot or cold? He tried to understand if I would be deceiving him if I could be trusted? But once he was convinced that the sand and the situation around him were not threatening him, he began to interact with him easily.
A little sandpit a lot of water. They like to play around in this "mud". On the street, mothers don't usually welcome this, but here you can. Working in wet sand can be very adorable, and sometimes you want to prolong that state. Overwhelmed by different senses, the soul finds calm relaxation in interaction with wet sand. The psyche seems to be healing itself. The interior is released for a new positive experience and a feeling of acceptance, trust and love.
Many children in the sand love to play hide and seek. You're burying something in the sand and the therapist has to find it. Then they change places. In this way, children try to feel their need and their value for their parents when they are transferred to the therapist.
Many therapists who practice sand therapy believe that the first world in the sand a child builds is their mother's world. That is, the child is filled with the maternal subconscious, which sometimes destructively affects him. Sand therapy helps to free the child's inner space for himself, to end the union with his mother, to stop making maternal projections, to no longer reproduce the negative family scenario and to become the creator of his life path.
The sand play technique can be used not only in psychology for psycho-correction, but also at home for educational purposes. Parents who are serious about raising a little person can successfully correct their children's behavior with the help of sand therapy.
As the game progresses, the children's imagination, language, thinking, communication skills and creative abilities develop. It would be nice to arrange a glass and backlit table for painting with sand. The cost is not great here, expensive toys cost a lot more. But the return on such games will exceed your wildest expectations.
Carl Gustav Jung (Fig. 18) is one of Sigmund Freud's students, who ultimately differed greatly from his teacher. At the same time, he was creating his own direction that gave a foundation, an impetus, an impetus for the development of a number of techniques, including those related to art therapy.
Fig. 18. American psychologist Carl Gustav Jung
The first technique discussed is Sand-Jung therapy.
Sand therapy (sand play) - one of the most interesting methods that arose in the context of analytical psychology. Sand therapy is a unique way to communicate with the world and with yourself. a way to reduce inner stress, to unconsciously translate it symbolically, which increases self-confidence and opens up new paths for development. Sand therapy makes it possible to touch the deep, real self, restore your spiritual integrity and collect your unique picture of the world (Fig. 19).
Fig. 19. The appearance of the sandpit during sand therapy.
The theoretical basis of sand therapy is formed by the ideas of K. G. Jung and the principles of analytical psychology formulated by him.
The same principles are implemented in a wonderful direction. art therapy. Art therapy is a method of psychotherapy that uses art techniques and various types of creativity for treatment and psycho-correction. running time "Art Therapy" presented artist Adrian Hill 1938 when he described his work with tuberculosis patients in sanatoriums. At the beginning of its development, art therapy reflected the psychoanalytic views of Z. Freud and KG. Jung, according to which the end product of the client's artistic activity (drawing, sculpture, installation) expresses his unconscious mental processes. The American Art Therapy Association was founded in America in 1960.
The main goal of art therapy consists in the harmonization of personal development through the development of the ability to present oneself and self-awareness. The value of using art for therapeutic purposes is that it can be used to express and explore a variety of feelings on a symbolic level: love, hate, resentment, anger, joy, etc. The method of art therapy is based on the belief that the inner is present A person's ego is reflected in visual images when he paints, paints a picture or forms a sculpture.
The main art therapeutic technique is the technique of active imagination. It opens up unlimited possibilities to the customer for self-expression and self-realization in the products of his creativity with an active knowledge of his "I". During the creative process the client has the opportunity not only to explore the sides of his personality, to learn about himself, but also to advance his problems and problems.
The process of art therapy enables the client, through the result of his creativity, to touch his subconscious, to manifest the subconscious, to make it visible and accessible for management, to change it, to explore his feelings, to increase his experiences on a new level recognize and process, gain new experience.
The tasks of art therapy :
l Obtain material for psychodiagnostics and define a treatment strategy
I focus the customer's attention on their feelings
l Creation of conditions for a socially acceptable exit from suppressed aggression and other negative feelings
I have mastered the skills of relaxation, concentration on the process, self-control, introspection
l Development of creative skills and personal potential
What can art therapy work with:
I have intensified states of anxiety, fears, states of crisis, internal and interpersonal conflicts,
l Inadequate self-esteem and self-doubt
l Neurotic and post-traumatic disorders, depression, bad mood, psychosomatics, injuries, losses, family relationships and much more.
Art therapy works effectively in counseling and therapy for adults, children, adolescents, in individual or group format. This method has no limitations and contraindications.
Some types of art therapy (Fig. 20). :
l puppet therapy
I'm a fairy tale therapy
i film therapy
l mask therapy
l music therapy
l dance motor art therapy
l body art therapy
I work with clay and dough
l sand art therapy
l felt therapy
l landscape art therapy and many others
Fig. 20. From left to right: doll therapy, mandalotherapy, felt therapy
From the point of view of the representative of classical psychoanalysis, the mechanism of sublimation is the main mechanism of corrective measures in art therapy. From the point of view of the proponent of the humanistic direction, the corrective possibilities of art therapy are connected with offering the client practically unlimited possibilities for self-expression and self-realization in the products of creativity, confirmation and knowledge about his "I". The products created by the customer, which objectify their affective attitude towards the world, facilitate the communication process and the building of relationships with important others (relatives, children, parents, peers, colleagues, etc.). Interest in the results of the creativity of others, their acceptance of creativity products, increases the self-esteem of the client and the degree of his self-acceptance and self-esteem.
According to C. Jung, art, especially legends and myths, and art therapy using art greatly facilitate the process of individualizing a person's self-development based on the establishment of a mature balance between the unconscious and the conscious self.
The same words can be fully attributed to another technique, also rooted in the analytic direction of psychology - symbol drama (katatymo-imaginative psychotherapy).
Catatomically imaginative psychotherapy - A method of depth-oriented psychotherapy developed by a famous German psychiatrist and psychotherapist Hanscarl Leiner(Fig. 21). For over 50 to ten years, the method has been used successfully in European countries for the effective care of patients with neurotic, post-traumatic, psychosomatic, affective and personality disorders.
Fig. 21. Founder of the symbolic drama German psychiatrist, psychotherapist, Professor Hanscarl Leiner
The amulet "Eye of Horus" (Fig. 22) was chosen by Professor Hanscarl Leiner as a symbol, which he created according to the symbolic drama method.
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