What sporting events occurred in 1993

Summary

During the 20th century, sport became more and more a mass movement. With the increasing number of active people, which includes younger and older age groups, the downsides of sport also increased. In the autopsied sports deaths of under 35-year-olds, myocarditis, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, right ventricular dysplasia, juvenile coronary sclerosis, congenital coronary anomalies, Marfan's syndrome, heart valve defects such as mitral valve prolapse and cardiac arrhythmia occurred.
In the cardiovascular-related sports deaths of those over 35 years of age, on the other hand, coronary artery disease was the underlying cause. While in older studies on cardiac death in sport, coronary heart disease only caused 39% of deaths, more recent surveys show that coronary sclerosis is almost exclusively dominant in older athletes. In this literature, the information is over 80%, and coronary heart disease is assumed to be the predominant cause of the sudden death of the elderly male athlete. In addition to age and smoking, hypertension is mentioned in numerous studies as risk factors for sudden cardiac death.
The epidemiological, retrospective, follow-up mortality study (SAUDIS) is based on data from ARAG, as well as hospital reports, emergency doctor protocols and autopsy reports, covers a period of 16 years (1981 - 1996) and records all deaths of club athletes from 11 federal states (Baden- W├╝rttemberg - Hamburg - Bremen (since 1996) - Hesse - Lower Saxony (since 1993) - Mecklenburg - Western Pomerania (since 1992) - North Rhine-Westphalia) - Saarland - Saxony (1994) - Saxony-Anhalt (since 1994) - Schleswig-Holstein.

Intermediate results

A total of 2374 deaths were documented in 70 disciplines. Most of the deaths (n = 2255) were male athletes, while the proportion of women was 5% (n = 119). This is countered by the fact that women in our study collective, the examined state sports associations, made up almost 40% of the club members. The most common causes of sudden death during or shortly after exercise were cardiovascular events (1431; 60.3%). 732 cardiovascular deaths occurred during training (men 710; women: 22) and 699 during competition (men: 689; women: 10). The sports most frequently affected by cardiovascular death were football (n = 494), tennis (m = 155), table tennis (n = 82), bowling (n = 81), gymnastics (n = 75) and handball (n = 65). The average age for cardiovascular deaths was 47.5 years for athletes and 47.9 for women athletes. 19.6% (n = 465) of the sports deaths could be attributed to traumatic causes and 20.1% (n = 478) to other causes such as commuting accidents etc. Conclusion: The annual incidence of a cardiovascular cause of death is calculated to be 0.35 / 100,000 for the male and 0.03 / 100,000 for the female athlete. Addendum from the 2001 survey: Over the period of 19 years (1981 - 1999), n = 2825 sudden and unexpected deaths of club athletes from 10 federal states (Baden-W├╝rttemberg, Bremen, Hamburg, Hesse, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Lower Saxony, North Rhine-Westphalia) , Saarland, Saxony, Schleswig-Holstein) on the basis of insurance documentation from ARAG sports insurance. Most of the deaths (n = 2669) were male athletes, while the proportion of women was 5.5% (n = 156). The average age of the athletes was 43.5 and that of the female athletes 38.4 years. The sports most frequently affected were soccer (n = 872), tennis (n = 203), cycling (n = 174), gymnastics (n = 124), handball (n = 120), table tennis (n = 117), bowling ( n = 103), athletics (n = 89) and horse riding (n = 78), which is an absolute frequency that must be evaluated in relation to the number of members, especially in mass sports. The most common causes of sudden death during or shortly after exercise were cardiovascular events (n = 1,747 (61.8%)). 887 cardiovascular deaths occurred during training and 860 during competition. 19.6% (n = 553) of the sports deaths could be traced back to traumatic causes. For a subgroup analysis, n = 2780 cases were used for which the exact date of death was documented. In the winter months (January n = 212, February n = 182, March n = 221) n = 615 (22.1%), in spring (April n = 249, May n = 317, June n = 283) n = 849 (30.5%), in summer (July n = 230, August n = 247, September n = 268) n = 745 (26.8%) and in autumn (October n = 210, November n = 204, December n = 157) n = 571 (20.5%) of all sudden deaths in sports. Winter accounts for 24% cardiovascular and 14.8% traumatic, spring 29% cardiovascular and 37.3% traumatic, summer 25% cardiovascular and 34.9% traumatic, and autumn 22 % of cardiovascular and 13% of traumatic deaths.