What role does identity play

What role does the family play in the identity development of children in migrant families?

Contents overview

1 Introduction
1.1. Delimitation of the problem

2. Definition of terms and breadth of interpretation
2.1. Identity development
2.1.1. The classic attempted explanation
2.1.2. The psychological point of view
2.1.3. A never-ending dynamic process
2.1.4 Part of a lifelong process
2.2. What does family mean
2.2.1. "Migration family"

3. Theoretical background
3.1. The identity according to George Herbert Mead
3.2. The identity according to Ervin Goffmann
3.2.1. The presentation of the self in everyday life
3.3. The identity according to Erik H. Erikson
3.3.1. Identity as a lifelong development

4. The cultural identity and the socialization process
4.1. What does "culture" mean?
4.2. Identity as part of the socialization process

5. The role of the family in the socialization process
5.1. General
5.2. Specifics in the socialization process of the migrant family

6. Conclusion / conclusion

7. Bibliography

1 Introduction

1.1. Delimitation of the problem

The preoccupation with people and the individual individuals has been a central concern with humanity for a long time. Due to migration - “every change of location of people” (Hoffmann-Nowotny 1970: 107) and the diversity of our world as well as increasing globalization, there is in turn increased migration of people. Such movements lead many people to other than their original areas of the earth and to partly voluntary, partly involuntary settlements.

On the increase in migration movements according to the Population Reference Bureau:

“There were 214 million international migrants in 2010, meaning that 3 percent of the world's almost 7 billion people left their country of birth or citizenship for a year or more. The number of international migrants almost doubled between 1985 and 2010 ". (see prb.org)

These movements of people often lead families and especially their children into complex situations and situations, because the entire family system has to reorient and identify itself in a new society with the expected structure, norms and values.

P.L. Berger (1977) on this:

when people are outwardly in motion, their self-image often changes too. Just think of the amazing transformation of self-image and a sense of identity that can be the result of a simple change of residence ”(p. 68)

In such a complex state of multiple identities, family cohesion is of crucial importance. As the primary socialization authority, families play an essential role in the formation of their children's identity. This is why the children's way of dealing with this dual identity is a challenge for the entire family who has emigrated. The subject of this seminar paper is the role the family plays in the identity development of children in families who have emigrated.

In the following, the importance of identity as part of the socialization process is first discussed, and a family analysis and a theoretical analysis of the background to the development of identity are carried out. The work not only focuses on the identity development of migrant children, but also presents models of how the terms “cultural identity” and “socialization” appear in such a process. The main focus of the analysis is on the identity of migrant children as part of the socialization process and on the specifics of the primary socialization process of migrant parents in Europe. Following this consideration of the status quo, I will include Turkish and German family constructions in Germany. After their presentation, the different constructs relating to the identity and socialization of the children are presented. In the final conclusion I will try to summarize the identity as part of the socialization process and the complexity due to such terms as well as a self-experience as a migrant with a dual identity in Austrian society.

2. Definition of terms and breadth of interpretation

2.1. Identity development

In order to get closer to the term “identity”, Erikson's thesis is used and the focus is on its description. Erikson describes identity with a sense of equality and continuity as well as the feeling of being one with oneself. He also describes identity as the result of an active search to construct the self.

So is "To understand identity as a feeling of identity, i.e. of continuity and unity with oneself. This sense of identity is clarified through interaction with others and in the context of one's own culture and it is to be understood as a process that lasts lifelong. "(Erikson: 1968)

The term identity is also described in different contexts such as the classic attempt to explain a part of a lifelong socialization process.

2.1.1. The classic attempted explanation

Individuals have long been central figures in human analysis. The classics Adorno and Horkheimer show that Homer's figure of Odysseus already shows himself as a person at a reflexive distance from nature. (cf. 1968). In this sense, humans emancipate themselves through their inner control bodies and can be further understood due to the existing particles in the cosmic processes. In addition, nature measures itself and fills people with adventurous aspects, which is why there is only a weak idea of ​​identity, because doing and acting is more or less determined by nature.

“On the Homeric level, the identity of the self is so much a function of the unidentical, of the dissociated inarticulate myths, that it has to borrow from them (...). Still in the inner organizational form of individuality, time, so weak that the unity of adventure outwardly, its consequence of the spatial change of scenes, the places of local deities, to whom the storm hits "(Horkheimer / Adorno: 1973, p. 42 )

The preoccupation with the individual first began during the period of transition from the Middle Ages to the modern age, because in this period people tried to determine their existence beyond the social hierarchy from the feudal relationships and made it possible to free the individual and his own sense of life to find. (See Heinz / König: 2010, p. 29)

In this regard, identity is at the forefront of modern psychology. Keupp (2001) also explains that the desire of individuals not to allow themselves to be controlled by beings determined by others, but to determine and understand themselves as autonomous beings, increases their interest in identity. This desire for self-determination and one's own identity has increasingly changed or intensified over time.

The classic idea of ​​identity is associated with a person who remains basically the same person over a period of time in different situations and the image of the successful self of this time is an unchanging self that allows its own authenticity despite changes. (Cf. Heinz / König 2001: 29)

From a point of view, one's own ego was understood as something enclosed, resting and immovable. As shown above, Keupp (2001) shows this as a metaphorical leitmotif for a happy self from a classical perspective.

2.1.2. The psychological point of view

On the basis of the description of identity from a psychological point of view, it seems interesting to refer essentially to Erik H. Erikson, who argued the concept of identity on the basis of the psychoanalytic concept of the ego. Erikson explained the unclear border between conscious and unconscious actions because the human being has to endure internal and external conflicts that arise from the stronger inner feeling units. (Compare Heinz / König 2001: 30)

In addition, an adolescent recognizes the direction of the movement of the collective future and he / she develops his / her ego in the social world. Erikson referred to this knowledge or this feeling as "I-identity" and understands by it the development of the I-identity as a subjective experience.

According to Erikson (2000: 18), the “conscious feeling of having a personal identity (...) is based on two simultaneous observations: the immediate perception of one's own equality and continuity in time, and the associated perception that others also have this equality and Recognize continuity ”.

According to Erikson's thesis, it is about the ability of the individual to build on continuities in all situations. The connection between identity and socialization can be seen. Due to the continuity, the person in his environment is subjected to a constant process of socialization on the primary, secondary and tertiary level of socialization. In addition, it becomes a construct of identity that is of course formulated with the subjective trust in one's own continuity and is thus associated with a certain sense of identity that questions one's own self as a fundamental question. (See Heinz / König 2010: 30)

The classic Erikson designs a step model that provides the individual with a lifelong basis of identity and enables a multitude of childhood identifications, which the adolescent integrates and represents to his / her ego identity. The inner core of the individual is then constructed from the sum of these identifications. (See Hein / König 2010: 30).

Erikson goes so far that the individual can develop a stable inner core, which is seen as his "inner capital", which simplifies his further life and shows relevant ideas of a unified and continuous self:

“The feeling of ego identity is the accumulated trust that the unity and continuity that one has in the eyes of others corresponds to an ability to maintain an inner unity and continuity (in the sense of psychology)” (Erikson 2000: 107)

Erikson has thus brought about the integration processes of the individual and identification in a social world, which Keupp, on the other hand, presented critically and through terms such as individualization, pluralization and globalization via the self-understanding of classical modernism. (see Keupp H. et al 2002)

This criticism and the difficult idea of ​​a stable and secure identity that does not change are the central points of criticism of this terminology.


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