Why do people migrate

Migration in Germany

The phenomenon of migration in Germany

The history of the world is a history of migration - this is how Germany can be viewed statistically as Immigration country describe. According to the Federal Statistical Office, around 399,700 more people immigrated to Germany in 2018 than the other way around. The absolute number of "foreigners" (residents without German citizenship) was in 2018 according to the microcensus 9.9 million, of which just under 1.5 million had no experience of migration because they were born in Germany. Most of them were born in Turkey, Poland and Syria in 2018.

According to the Federal Statistical Office, around 20.8 million people lived with a so-called in 2018 Migration background in Germany - this corresponds to 25.5% of the total population. A migration background means the fact that someone does not have German citizenship by birth or has at least one parent who does.

Most of the people who immigrated to Germany in 2018 come from Europe: around 67 percent from European countries (including Turkey), around 39 percent from EU member countries. Most of the immigrants came from Romania in 2018.

Germany in a European comparison

In 2017 that was Germany most popular immigration country in the European Union - 398,906 people moved to Germany. The United Kingdom (383,551) and Spain (382,110) had similar figures in 2017. The highest Migration balance (= Immigration - emigration), however, showed the United Kingdom with 218,034 people. Cyprus and Luxembourg even had a negative migration balance in 2017, i.e. more people emigrated than immigrated.

The highest "Immigrants per inhabitant" rate Malta had in 2017 (46.3 per 1000 inhabitants). Germany was 11.1 in the middle with 11.1 immigrants per 1000 inhabitants.

Reasons for migration

The reasons for migration are usually varied and can be broken down into four reasons for residence divide: employment, training reasons, humanitarian reasons, family reasons.

In 2016, the residence permits issued were broken down into the following reasons: 43% humanitarian, international or political reasons, 33% family reasons, 13% training, 7% employed skilled workers, 2% gainful employment in unskilled employment, 2% other.

While in 2018 the issuing of residence permits to third-country nationals increased only slightly compared to the previous year, there was a significant increase in the issuance of Residence permits for the purpose of training and employment be recorded. An increasing number of residence permits have been issued for commencing studies as well as for employment with and without qualification requirements as well as for looking for a job. In quantitative terms, the most important country for educational migration remains overall, China, for gainful immigration India.

The adoption of the "Skilled Workers Immigration Act" June 2019 should lead to a further liberalization of German immigration policy. No changes will be made to the basic system of the current residence law, but the migration of skilled workers from third countries is to be simplified. In the future, people with recognized vocational training or a degree and an existing job offer should in principle be able to immigrate to all sectors. Migration as part of the search for a job or training position is also made possible under specific conditions.