What breaks the heart of an ENFP

4 temperaments with 4 C.G. Jung types each (compared to MBTI)

 

Actionists (Artisans) - SP

IFS (ISFP) IDS (ISTP) ESF (ESFP) ESD (ESTP)

Actionists are fun-loving, optimistic, realistic, focused on the here and now; unconventional, brave, spontaneous; playful buddies, creative parents, hard-hitting executives; enthusiastic and inspiring, impulsive, flexible, want to cause a sensation.

They are often gifted for painting, sculpture, music, theater and dance, for the sporting, military, political, technical and industrial arts and for the "art of good business".

They have keen senses and like to work with their hands in the real world of solid things. Striving for masterful handling of tools, instruments, vehicles of all kinds; after masterful body control, top athletic performance, daring and risky adventures.

They are everywhere where there is action, fun, excitement. Want to enjoy life - here and now and with friends - and let others freely participate in the fullness of life.

Irrepressible pursuit of freedom; they resist being bound, cramped, restricted or obliged.

15 to 20 percent of the population are actionists.

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IFS (ISFP) - Composers - Genießer - (eS = SP Actionist)

IFS (ISFP) live in harmony with their senses and have a secure sense of what is and what is not acceptable in all kinds of works of art. They have an extraordinary ability to work with the finest nuances in color, tone, structure, aroma and taste.

IFS (ISFP) often invest lonely hours in their artistic talent. You act impulsively, in the here and now, with little or no planning or preparation. IFS (ISFP) are seized by the process of artistic creation and carried away as if by a whirlwind. Whether they're painting or carving a statue, dancing or skating, composing or creating a recipe, they just do it because they have to. The creative act breaks out of them.

When it comes to fellow human beings, they are extremely friendly, warm-hearted, loving, caring and particularly sensitive to the suffering and grief of others. Some IFS (ISFP) have a special skill for small children with whom they spontaneously associate sympathy and trust. IFS (ISFP) can develop a similar bond with animals, even with wild animals. Your deep closeness to nature can increase to an instinctive longing for the wilderness.

IFS (ISFP) can easily be misunderstood and misunderstood because they do not use verbal expression and are usually not interested in conversation or even public speaking. They prefer to feel the pulse of life through touch, in the muscles, in the eyes, in the ears, in the tongue. If they can find a medium for non-verbal communication, such as an art form, they can express their essence and worldview quite eloquently. If not, her character remains almost invisible behind her gentle modesty.

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IDS (ISTP) - Crafters - craftsmen - (eS = SP Actionist)

IDS (ISTP) are the true masters and experts in handling tools, equipment, machines and instruments of all kinds and they quickly develop all the necessary skills. In a certain sense, IDS (ISTP) do not “work” with their tools, but “play” with them spontaneously and impulsively when the urge overcomes them.

In this "game" with their various tools - cars, motorcycles, all-terrain vehicles, dune buggies, boats, hunting rifles, fishing gear, diving equipment and so on - they are full of excitement and get in top form, especially in the high speed of motor races, surfing or water skiing. In doing so, they repeatedly expose themselves to danger, despite frequent injuries, and put themselves or their equipment at risk for better or for worse.

Their verbal communication is sparse and short, they let their actions speak for themselves. This lack of expression can isolate them in school and at work.

IDS (ISTP) can be wonderfully generous and loyal to their friends, comrades, and mates, and they often sacrifice their evenings or weekends to help with house construction or technical repairs.

IDS (ISTP) can be highly defiant against persons in authority and tend to view laws and regulations as unnecessarily restrictive. As a rule, IDS (ISTP) will not act openly against regulations, they will simply ignore them. More than anything else, IDS (ISTP) want to be free and do their own thing, and they do so with the skill and skill of an artist.

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ESF (ESFP) - Performers - Entertainer - (eS = SP Actionist)

ESF (ESFP) are warm, friendly and sociable people who bring joy and fun to their surroundings with their delicious humor and exceptional musical and acting skills. At every opportunity, in work and family as well as at parties and with friends, their amusing and rousing liveliness inspires people around them to forget work and worries, to let the sun shine into their soul and to get down to life looking forward.

ESF (ESFP) are dazzling and sparkling entertainers and usually immediately form the invigorating center of a society. They are agile and talkative, and always seem to have the latest jokes and stories.

ESF (ESFP) need society because they don't feel comfortable when they are alone. You need and are looking for variety and variety. That is why ESF (ESFP) are always ready to try almost everything that promises fun and enjoyment, but do not always think sufficiently about the consequences.

ESF (ESFP) are the most generous of all types. What they have, they share with anyone and everyone without expecting reward or thanks, and they give their love generously without expecting anything in return.

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ESD (ESTP) - Promoters - Doers - (eS = SP Actionist)

ESD (ESTP) need action and always demand new activities and new challenges. Wherever an ESD (ESTP) appears, something gets going: the lights go on, music sounds, the games begin. It never gets boring with them. They are clever and full of fun and with their theatrical swing can make even the biggest routine seem exciting. However, they avoid routine wherever possible.

ESD (ESTP) are bold, daring, optimistic, and trusting that things will take their right course. That is why they take enormous risks to get what they want. They are excellent managers and negotiators in trouble spots and know how to get companies going and to stimulate business.

They live in the here and now, want to enjoy life and have a good appetite for the fine things in life, the best food, the best wine, expensive cars and fashionable clothes.

ESD (ESTP) move safely and routinely in company, know a lot of people by name and always know the right thing to say. They are adorable, confident, and popular, with an inexhaustible supply of stories and jokes. When it comes to authority and commitment, ESD (ESTP) are uncompromising and will likely leave arenas if they are only allowed to play second fiddle or where they are expected to be "in line".

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Traditionalists (Guardians) - SJ (iS = sensory orientation in introverted orientation as a dominant or secondary function)

ISD (ISTJ) ISF (ISFJ) EFS (ESFJ)

Traditionalists are reliable, helpful, hardworking, and trustworthy. They are loyal companions, responsible parents and stabilizing leaders. When there is a task to be performed, you can count on them to do their utmost.

They are practical, objective and cooperative; careful, humble and reputable; have fun with their friends, but have a serious attitude towards their duties and responsibilities.

They advocate calm, order and continuity. That is why they adhere to traditions and customs, make sure that rules and laws are observed and stand up for law and justice. You are looking for security and recognition.

They are committed citizens, respect authorities and demand this respect from others as well. They preferably work within systems, in public administration and in institutions, on whose function and maintenance they work loyally and dutifully. In this respect, they are and see themselves as pillars of society.

They get involved in groups of all kinds and use all their skills and abilities to ensure that everything runs smoothly in their families, communities, schools, churches, hospitals and businesses. It is also up to them to work with goods and services, to monitor, maintain and deliver them.

Traditionalists are disciplined, stick to schedules and have a clear eye for correct procedures and processes. They are cautious about changes, even when they see the benefits, and have no tendency to improvise or break new ground.

40 to 45 percent of the population are traditionalists.

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ISD (ISTJ) - Inspector - Inspector - (iSJ Traditionalist)

ISD (ISTJ) are professionally and privately reliable, conscientious, unusually persistent and patient when it comes to their own work and their involvement in the processes within an institution. ISD (ISTJ) are responsible to the core and love it when the others are also reliable, know their duties, follow the guidelines and work within the framework of the rules.

ISD (ISTJ) feel responsible that rules are followed and laws are respected. They ensure that goods and merchandise are checked, quality requirements are met and schedules are adhered to, that resources are made available in sufficient quality and quantity when and where they are needed.

ISD (ISTJ) can uncompromisingly demand compliance with the rules in the workplace and they do not hesitate to report irregularities to the responsible authorities. This is why they are often misunderstood as hard-hearted and cold-hearted, because people overlook their good intentions and their vulnerability to criticism. And because ISD (ISTJ) usually make little fuss about their inspection work, the commitment in their work goes unnoticed and unappreciated.

ISD (ISTJ) are not overly talkative, but very sociable and they often do voluntary work in non-profit organizations. Like all traditionalists, they attach great importance to convivial family ceremonies - weddings, birthdays, anniversaries - but tend to be cautious when the celebration is too big or even public.

In general, ISD (ISTJ) do not feel comfortable when something is too unusual. Their choice of words is simple and matter-of-fact, they often dress simply and conservatively. They prefer to keep the ambience at home or at work clean, tidy and traditional than fashionable or boastful. In their personal affairs, they prefer standard objects to cluttered models and often try to find classic or antique items.

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ISF (ISFJ) - Protector - Carer - (iSJ Traditionalist)

ISF (ISFJ) are calm, friendly, attentive, reserved and helpful. You are disciplined, reliable, have a high work ethic and complete tasks on time. ISF (ISFJ) are warm-hearted, tactful and amiable, but rather reserved and unobtrusive.

Their primary interest is the safety and security of all those who are important to them - family, friends, schoolchildren and students, patients, bosses, employees and employees. ISF (ISFJ) have an extraordinary sense of loyalty and responsibility and feel happy when they can shield others from danger, hardship and fraud and when they can stand by the oppressed and the disabled.

ISF (ISFJ) do not believe in speculation and experimentation; they prefer to be satisfied with recognized and proven products and processes. They are rarely happy when the rules are constantly changing or when long-standing methods and working methods are not respected.

ISF (ISFJ) value tradition in culture and family. They respect social hierarchies based on birth, title, functions or certificates. They value family history and look after family property, especially heirlooms.

ISF (ISFJ) are extremely diligent and thorough, work long and hard, and inconspicuously do all the ungrateful jobs and tasks that others try to avoid. You also like to work alone and do something yourself instead of hiring others to do it.

ISF (ISFJ) are frugal, appreciate the value of money, abhor waste and prepare for emergencies. Often their frugality and personal unpretentiousness are taken for granted, and they rarely get the thanks and recognition they deserve.

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EFS (ESFJ) - Provider - Host - (iSJ Traditionalist)

EFS (ESFJ) are very sociable, enthusiastic, helpful and committed. They enjoy spending considerable time and energy meeting the needs of others and ensuring the welfare and health of those who care about them. Friendly social service is a key attribute of the EFS (ESFJ); they are the major supporters of nonprofit institutions such as schools, churches, social clubs, and civic associations.

EFS (ESFJ) are very cooperative and also know how to promote and maintain teamwork among their employees. They are excellent as chairpersons at balls, banquets, class reunions, charity events, etc., are excellent masters of ceremonies, and speak with ease and confidence in public.

They are excellent hosts, know everyone by name and often remember what everyone does. EFS (ESFJ) like to invite guests, continuously take care of the guests' needs and want to make sure that everyone is involved and looked after.

EFS (ESFJ) are sociable, enjoy talking to others, often start a conversation with strangers and know how to chat pleasantly on any topic that comes to mind. Friendships mean a lot to them, and in their conversations with friends they often refer to good times from earlier years. Family traditions are also sacred to them and they pay careful attention to birthdays and anniversaries. They show a lovable interest in everything that goes on in the neighborhood and among friends, in school and church.

You are extremely sensitive to the feelings of others, you are loving and affectionate and you also have the need to be loved yourself. They can be deeply hurt when they are personally criticized and they are happiest when they receive a lot of appreciation for themselves personally and for the relentless service they give to others.

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EDS (ESTJ) - Supervisor - Director - (iSJ Traditionalist)

EDS (ESTJ) are deeply involved in society and invest a lot of time and energy in their community, in schools, churches, factories and civic groups, in service clubs, local groups and various associations. You are happy to take on responsible management tasks and give precise and clear instructions. You are cooperative and expect the same from employees.

EDS (ESTJ) are good at creating schedules, agendas, inventories, etc., preferring well-established and accurate procedures. EDS (ESTJ) have both feet firmly on the ground and would like to see others in their care - employees, spouses, children - be just as realistic and practical. You have no problem with the judgment of others.

EDS (ESTJ) are incredibly hardworking and proactive. Even as children they are hardworking and respect their parents as persons of authority. At school they prove to be conscientious, conscientiously do their homework and are often entrusted with management and supervision tasks. And when they grow up and take on responsibility in their work and family, their hard work and perseverance will only increase.

EDS (ESTJ) establish and maintain human relationships in accordance with traditional guidelines. Marriage and parenthood are sacred to them. You have a large circle of friends and often maintain friendships for many years. Social gatherings and ceremonies are of great importance to them; they look forward to holiday parties, dance events, wedding celebrations, class reunions, award ceremonies, etc.

EDS (ESTJ) move about in a relaxed, polite and friendly manner and enjoy talking to others in a relaxed manner. You are open, clear, and natural, and you dislike posh behavior.

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Idealists - NF

INF (INFJ) - IFN (INFP) - EFN (ENFJ) - ENF (ENFP)

Idealists are enthusiastic, trust their intuition, are kind, kind, loving, generous, and trusting. Idealists dream of harmonious, caring personal relationships, and they have a unique talent for helping people get along well and work together for the good of all. They develop into exciting partners, caring parents and enthusiastic leaders.

They long for romantic love, are looking for a "soul mate", a "soul mate", someone with whom they can connect emotionally and spiritually and share their deepest feelings and their complex inner world. They value a few warm and empathetic friendships and strive for special relationships with their children.

Idealists are passionate about personal growth and development, seek their true, authentic selves, and want to be truthful with themselves and with others. They are very ethical in their actions and adhere to strict standards of personal integrity.

Idealists have a natural tendency to work with people and - whether in education or counseling, in social services or personal work, in journalism or in pastoral care - they have a gift to help others find their way in life and to help them inspire to grow as individuals and fulfill their potential.

They believe that friendly cooperation is the best way to achieve their goals and avoid creating aggressive barriers between people through confrontation and conflict.

The real, practical world is just a launch pad for idealists; they are open to a mystical or spiritual dimension of life and direct their strong intuition to the “invisible”, to the “not yet”, which is often more important to them than the world of material things.

No more than 2-3 percent of the population are idealists. But their ability to inspire people with their enthusiasm and idealism gives them an influence far beyond their numerical presence.

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IFN (INFP) - Healer - Dreamer - (Idealist NF)

IFN (INFP) are calm and relaxed and can appear withdrawn, even distant. But inside they are anything but emotionless. They are exceptionally caring and take great care of the well-being and inner development of their loved ones and a select few, or of a preferred cause they represent to the world. Her great passion is to heal conflicts that worry individuals or divide groups.

Their great idealism arises from a strong personal sense of right and wrong. They envision the world as an ethical, honorable place, full of wonderful opportunity and potential for wealth. To truly understand IFN (INFP) one must understand that their deep commitment to the positive and good is almost limitless and selfless, inspiring them to make extraordinary sacrifices for someone or something they believe in.

This personality pattern is so rare (only about 1 percent of the population) that IFNs (INFP) are not understood in their seclusion and needlessness and feel isolated in the purity of their idealism. And if once the parents wanted to bring their imaginative and dreamy child - who may have seen themselves as the prince or princess in fairy tales - disapprovingly down to earth, the child may have begun to believe that it is bad and that it is ugly duckling experienced. In truth, IFNs (INFP) are all right as they are.

In the workplace, IFNs (INFP) are adaptable, open to new ideas and information, patient in complicated situations but impatient with routine details. IFN (INFP) have a keen awareness of people and their feelings and create good relationships with others. You also like to work alone. They follow their hearts and not their heads in their decisions. This is why they can make errors about facts, but rarely errors about feelings.

IFN (INFP) often develop excellent language skills and enjoy writing in lyrical and poetic form. Often they experience the call to go out into the world and help others and they seem quick to respond to that call, even if it means sacrificing their own comfort.

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INF (INFJ) - Counselors - Psychologist - (Idealist NF)

INF (INFJ) are friendly and positive with others; they are good listeners and seem to have a natural interest in helping people with their personal problems. INF (INFJ) do not like to act as leaders, preferring to work intensively person-to-person with people they have close contact with, exerting their influence behind the scene.

INF (INFJ) have an unusually strong desire to contribute to the prosperity of others and find great personal fulfillment when they interact with people, nurture their personal development and guide them to realize their personal potential.

INF (INFJ) are rare (just over 1 percent of the population) and can be difficult to spot because they tend to share their innermost thoughts and strong emotional responses only with people they love. They are very withdrawn people with an unusually rich and complex inner workings.

INF (INFJ) enjoy working in professions that require solitude and full attention (e.g. writing), but they also get along easily with individuals or groups, provided that the personal interactions are not superficial and that they always find quiet, private times, in which you can recharge your batteries.

INF (INFJ) also work effectively in organizations. You value harmony among employees and make every effort to contribute to the smooth and pleasant functioning of an organization. INF (INFJ) address people's feelings and can act as a barometer for the emotional state within an organization.

INF (INFJ) are gifted with a vivid imagination. They are very intuitive and can identify a person's emotions and intentions, good and bad, before the person even realizes. Her ability to speak and write languages ​​usually brings a very personal touch to her communication with people.

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ENF (ENFP) - Champion - Comedian - (Idealist NF)

ENF (ENFP) are lively and enthusiastic, viewing intense emotional experiences as essential to full life. They see life as an exciting drama, full of opportunities for good and bad, and they want to experience and experience all the meaningful events and fascinating people in the world. You have a great passion for new and strange things.

ENF (ENFP) are extremely sociable and often cannot wait to tell others about their extraordinary experiences and experiences. You can talk tirelessly to others like babbling and gushing springs. They don't just tell stories, but rather talk and write, often in the hope of revealing a truth about human experiences and experiences, or of motivating others with their powerful beliefs.

ENF (ENFP) have extraordinary intuitive powers and can tell what is going on in others, read hidden emotions and give words or actions a special meaning. They are keen and inquiring observers who constantly scan the social environment; no fascinating character or secret motif escapes their attention. ENF (ENFP) are particularly sensitive and vigilant, always ready for unexpected events and always on the lookout for what is possible.

ENF (ENFP) are good with people and usually have a large circle of personal relationships. They are gracious and relaxed, warm-hearted and full of energy and, for example, also treat their employees and students with great skill. ENF (ENFP) are positive and exuberant people and often their belief in the good in life and in human nature causes good to happen.

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EFN (ENFJ) - Teacher - Teacher - (Idealist NF)

For EFN (ENFJ), people are the top priority and they instinctively express personal concern and willingness to engage with others. EFN (ENFJ) are warm-hearted, sociable and express their language extremely well, especially in face-to-face conversations.

Sparkling with enthusiasm, EFN (ENFJ) share their feelings with dramatic expressiveness. With training and experience, they can become charismatic public speakers. It is these verbal skills that EFN (ENFJ) owe considerable influence in groups and they are often asked to take a leading role.

EFN (ENFJ) have a natural talent to motivate students or interns to learn and to awaken the potential of all learners. They can devise fascinating learning activities for their students to pique their interest. Perhaps their greatest strength lies in their belief in their students. EFN (ENFJ) seek to find the best in their students and convey the clear understanding that each of them has immeasurable potential. This trust can inspire their students to grow and develop more than they ever thought possible.

EFN (ENFJ) like to have things organized and done. They carefully plan their working hours and social commitments. One can absolutely trust that they will meet their commitments. They are extremely tolerant and cooperative and value harmonious relationships.

EFN (ENFJ) are very sensitive and empathetic with others. Their intuition is highly developed, their self-knowledge and understanding of others are incomparable. EFN (ENFJ) identify with others very easily and have a feeling for the characteristic peculiarities, feelings and convictions of the people around them. You slip into other people's skin almost unconsciously and feel closely connected to them. In this way, they show their genuine concern for the joys and problems of their colleagues, employees, students, clients, and loved ones.

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Rationalists - ND

IDN (INTP) - EDN (ENTJ) - END (ENTP) - IND (INTJ)

Rationalists are usually pragmatic, skeptical, self-sufficient and balanced; inventive, logical, systematic, independent, determined and success-oriented. You are always on the lookout for new knowledge and want to understand how the world works. Rationalists are sensible companions, strategic leaders, and parents who are sensitive to the individual characteristics of their children.

Rationalists primarily strive to solve problems - the more complex the better - problems in mechanical systems (e.g. roads, computers), in organic systems (e.g. plants, animals) and in social systems (e.g. families, companies, governments).

You analyze the problem areas logically and systematically in order to understand how they work and how they could work better. Rationalists take a pragmatic approach and look for solutions that are real and can be used efficiently. But they are also interested in theoretical contexts, in the fundamental principles and natural laws on which the individual case is based.

You work single-mindedly and tirelessly to find the most effective solutions. They are strictly logical and independent in their thinking, listen to everyone who can contribute something useful. On the other hand, they disregard political and ideological influence and any authority or conventional procedure that wastes time or resources. You are skeptical and question ideas, including your own.

You work single-mindedly and with full concentration and fight against every obstacle. They use their intuition and ingenuity to find surprising solutions.

Only 5 to 10 percent of the population are rationalists, but they do a lot to shape our world.

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IDN (INTP) - Architect - Thinker - (Rationalist ND)

IDN (INTP) are the master planners of all types of theoretical systems including curricula, business strategies and new technologies (not just buildings, roads or bridges). For IDN (INTP), the world exists primarily to be analyzed, understood, explained - and redesigned and redesigned. The external reality itself or the raw material to be processed are not so important. The only important thing for the IDN (INTP) is that they grasp the fundamental principles and laws of nature and that their plans and designs are elegant, i.e. efficient and coherent.

IDN (INTP) are extremely precise in thinking and speaking. You tend to see peculiarities and contradictions immediately. In any serious discussion or debate, IDNs (INTP) are mind-blowing because their ability to formulate arguments gives them a tremendous advantage. IDN (INTP) view any discussion as a search for understanding and believe that their job is to clear up inconsistencies; this can make communicating with them an uncomfortable experience for many.

IDN (INTP) are uncompromising pragmatists and strive to find the most effective means for their purposes and goals. You want to keep learning. They will also listen to amateurs when their ideas are useful and will ignore experts when their ideas are not useful. IDN (INTP) are only interested in what makes sense. She is not impressed by authority based on office, certificate, or fame.

IDN (INTP) tend to be reluctant, except with close friends, and their reserve is difficult to penetrate. They can concentrate better than any other guy and prefer to work quietly at their computers and drawing boards, often alone. IDN (INTP) are often obsessed with their analysis, making it seem like they are excluding others. Once they are absorbed in a thought process, IDN (INTP) close themselves and wait until they understand the problem in all its complexity.

IDN (INTP) value intelligence, and in their irrepressible quest to understand the universe, they can appear arrogant and impatient with people who are inadequate or lack the urge to research.

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EDN (ENTJ) - Fieldmarshall - Commander - (Rationalist ND)

EDN (ENTJ) have a strong natural urge to create structure and leadership wherever they are - and to harness the people in the “field” (playing field, battlefield, work area) and direct them to achieve long-term goals. They have a tendency to make plans for tasks, companies, or organizations, but strive for tactics and goals rather than regulations and procedures.

In connection with this planning activity, the precautionary organization of possibilities and the creation of emergency plans are necessary. The technical construction and process planning is not so well developed at EDN (ENTJ) and is quickly outstripped by its increasing organizational skills. That is why they tend to take on a leading role in their social environment. They are tirelessly devoted to their professional tasks and can easily ignore other areas of life.

When in charge of an organization - military, business, education or government - EDN (ENTJ), more than any other type, have the desire and also the ability to vividly imagine where the organization is going, and they can have that vision also convey to others. However, their ability to organize can be much more developed than their ability to analyze. Therefore, EDN (ENTJ) executives will need the help of an END (ENTP) or IDN (INTP) to take advantage of these capabilities.

As excellent managers in every field - medicine, law, economics, education, government, military - EDN (ENTJ) organize their areas of responsibility into smoothly functioning systems. You always keep short-term and long-term goals in mind. There must always be a specific reason for everything to be done. People's feelings are usually not a sufficient reason for EDN (ENTJ).

EDN (ENTJ) prefer impersonal data as a basis for decision-making, want to work with well-thought-out plans, love the application of well-engineered procedures - and they expect others to obey.They are always determined to reduce red tape, clusters of offices, endless conferences, and aimless workplace clutter, and they are willing to fire employees when they are unable to cope with the program and become more efficient.

EDN (ENTJ) adhere to traditional procedures as long as they are efficient, but abandon any procedure if it proves ineffective in achieving their goals. ENTJ discover and discard the ineffective and inefficient and are intolerant when mistakes are repeated.

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END (ENTP) - Inventor - Inventor - (Rationalist ND)

With their innovative, entrepreneurial spirit, END (ENTP) are constantly on the lookout for a better way and keep an eye on new projects, new ventures and new processes. They always want to "build an even better mouse trap". END (ENTP) start building devices and mechanisms in childhood and never really stop, but as adults they also turn their ingenuity to social or technical organizations.

END (ENTP) are immensely curious and constantly researching possibilities, especially when trying to solve a complex problem. They refuse to do something in a certain way just because it has always been done that way. That is why they often bring fresh and new methods into their work and play.

END (ENTP) are full of ideas, but only value ideas when they enable actions or objects. They are highly pragmatic and see product design not as an end in itself, but as a means to an end, as a way to create the prototype that works and can be brought to market. They develop a mastery in designing and working out the most effective means to achieve their goals.