Can the local transport pass be renewed?
Hannelore Schlaffer. The city. Street life in the planned city
1 Hannelore Schlaffer Die City Street life in the planned city Documentation of the award ceremony The political book 2014
3 Documentation of the award ceremony The political book 2014 Hannelore Schlaffer Die City Street life in the planned city May 15, 2014 in Berlin
4 This documentation reproduces in a slightly abbreviated and revised form the speeches that were given on the occasion of the award ceremony The Political Book to Hannelore Schlaffer on May 15, 2014 in the Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung Berlin. Editor: Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung Politische Akademie Hiroshimastraße Berlin Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung Responsible: Dr. Tobias Mörschel Layout: Pellens Communication Design, Bonn Photos: Joachim Liebe, Potsdam
5 Contents Welcome and opening Kurt Beck Chairman of the Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung Ceremonial speech Prof. Dr.-Ing. Engelbert Lütke Daldrup State Secretary for Building and Housing of the Senate Department for Urban Development and the Environment, Berlin Laudation for Hannelore Schlaffer Dr. Klaus Hohlfeld Speaker of the Jury The Political Book Reasons for the Jury Certificate The Political Book 2014 Features and Politics Prof. Dr. Hannelore Schlaffer List of recommended books 2014 Members of the jury The political book Prize winners The political book since 1982 Information on the award of the prize
6 Welcome and opening by Kurt Beck, Chairman of the Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung. 4 I would like to extend a warm welcome to you, ladies and gentlemen, also on behalf of my colleague on the Executive Board, Dr. Schmidt, at the Friedrich Ebert Foundation. We are pleased that you are our guest tonight on this special occasion, the award ceremony for The Political Book. I greet the Excellencies, Ladies and Gentlemen, Ambassadors, the representatives of the state, municipalities and society. And I am particularly pleased to be able to welcome the lady, for whom and for whose work we have come together: Professor Hannelore Schlaffer. Thank you for facing our mutual reflections here, but also for allowing yourself to be celebrated. On one such occasion, there are quite a few personalities who contributed: those who edited the book, this year of the To Cleats! Publishing house, whose representative I warmly welcome,
7 but also those who have decided who should receive the political book award this year. Therefore, a very special thank you to Dr. Klaus Hohlfeld and the members of the jury. Over 170 books have been submitted. If you imagine what it means to do justice to all these works and in the end to make a decision to the best of our conscience and as objectively as possible, then that is worth a special thank you and special recognition, which I would like to express want. The prize has been awarded for around 30 years, and the jury has been working with Agnes Gergely for 22 years, who will now be retired. I take the opportunity to say in front of the entire audience: Thank you very much and all the best for the future! The jury probably hopes as much as we do that we will find an equally qualified and charming successor for this task. 5 In addition to the laureate's speech and the laudation, it is appropriate that a celebratory speech is given on a festive occasion. For this, we were able to win over the State Secretary for Building and Housing from the Berlin Senate Department for Urban Development and the Environment, probably also due to a certain tension between the political view of the development of the cities and the special view that our award winner casts on the cities: Mr. professor
8 Dr.-Ing. Engelbert Lütke Daldrup. Thank you very much for your willingness to give the speech. We are of course excited to see how the view of social developments will turn out from the perspective of the city of Berlin. 6 We have been awarding the award since 1982 and have an illustrious group of award winners from very different areas of responsibility: from literature, but also from society and politics. Václav Havel and Helmut Schmidt are among the winners, and the series could of course be expanded to include 30 more names. It shows how we understand the political book: It does not deal with political issues in the narrower sense of politics and sees politics for what it really is, namely the organization of people living together. This political term, chosen as a heading, was the decisive criterion in the selection. I read the book high above the clouds on a flight from Myanmar to Frankfurt. With this book, I am convinced after reading it, the thematic series of books that have won so far gains a very special new aspect. With this in mind, I would like to extend a warm welcome to you and I am delighted that I can now announce the official speech. State Secretary, you have the floor.
9 Speech by Prof. Dr.-Ing. Engelbert Lütke Daldrup State Secretary for Building and Housing of the Senate Department for Urban Development and the Environment, Berlin. Dear Festive Congregation, dear Kurt Beck, dear Professor Han - nelore Schlaffer, I am pleased that you asked me to say a few words. I was so reckless to accept this ceremonial address when I did not hold this office and had a little more time. I was previously managing director of the International Building Exhibition (IBA) in Thuringia and thought to myself: You have enough time to prepare properly. 7 Hannelore Schlaffer writes in her clairvoyant and apt analysis of street life in the planned city, among other things: The spectacular sight of the building is actually more important for the self-portrayal of the investors and city fathers than the acceptance of the citizens. When I read this sentence, I thought: She is right there. Elsewhere she writes: The happiness of democratic equality begins in such an aesthetic twilight. You start to think about it. I don't really want to say much more about the book now because I recommend it to you to read. It contains a whole range of interesting thoughts, even for someone who, like me, is a simple, practicing urban planner and has relatively little to say on the subject on which sociologists, anthropologists and other clever people can express themselves much more competently. That's why I thought to myself: talk about the things that you understand. And I want to talk to you about the challenges cities in Europe are facing today. If you get to the point, you can perhaps say: Sustainable development, economic stability, social cohesion, some also speak of a city based on solidarity like we do here in Berlin,
10 8 and ecological precaution - these are issues that fundamentally move city politics. To promote the social participation of all, to ecologically convert the cities and their regions, to organize coexistence in the cities, also to think about what holds our cities together at their core, what makes our democratic communities today, and the question of the city based on solidarity is what matters . But it is also about our citizens not only expecting their city to make sure that everything is tidy and functioning, but they also have a question: What do our cities actually look like? Are you beautiful Do we feel comfortable in them? Is the built environment pleasant? Our current award winner also addressed this in her book. For centuries, cities in Europe have enabled equal opportunities, integration and participation. This applies above all to their respective city districts. As I learned in Hannelore Schlaffer's book, this may not apply so much to the city, which apparently has a different function.
11 To further develop the special qualities of the European city and to defend them wherever necessary is an important matter. Regions and cities have to grapple with their willingness to integrate in the face of global imbalances. You need to develop a real welcoming culture. Because immigration will become more and more important in our cities, especially in the big cities and metropolises. And: We have developed a functioning community in the cities of Europe that guarantees democratic rights, freedom of thought and participation, which is an important basis for successful urban development. One topic that we are currently very busy with is the question: How do we get the energy transition under control? We know that climate change is not just ahead of us, it is actually happening. Temperatures have already risen by 0.7 degrees, and Berlin will have to be prepared to have temperatures three, four, five degrees higher in 2050, 2080, 2100. It has now become almost unrealistic that we will still achieve the two-degree target that has been invoked at all international conferences. That means that in Berlin it will be at least as warm as it is today in Rome or if we are unlucky like in Athens. Here I am talking about a period of two to three generations. 9 These changes have motivated us to make the energy transition. We see this energy transition primarily as a technical and financial problem. How can we shoulder that, can we do it, etc.? I believe that we in the cities and also in the rural regions have to think about it: What do we actually spend all the money on that we invest in the energy transition as electricity customers, as taxpayers? What significance does this have for our landscape areas? What does that mean for our urban planning images? What does this mean for the organization of our city quarters? In a way, I think our society is facing a paradigm shift similar to that when oil made automobiles possible or coal made steam-powered railways possible. Whenever new energy systems encompass a social system, it leads
12 10 that lead to fundamental changes in their physical and spatial structures and their landscape areas. In this respect, we are facing a very decisive course that will certainly keep us busy for 50 years and more. Keyword mobility: Actually we all know that the point in time when half of the oil that we have in the world has been extracted is already behind us, even if the experts argue a little about when it was exactly. We also know that we are not the only ones who want to drive cars in Europe. The Chinese car market is now larger than the European one. In other words, competition for oil, as we have known since the Iraq and other wars, plays a dominant role. We know, or we might know, that oil-based automobiles may no longer be possible in 30 or 50 years. So we will have to think about a different culture of mobility. Most of Berlin (including the entire area within the S-Bahn ring) was built when there were no cars. There were carriages, horses, etc. There were large stables in Kreuzberg where people kept their horses. The city at its core was already there when we were
13 11 did not yet have automobilization in the current sense. Berlin and other cities will still exist when the car is no longer the dominant means of transport. This is a question that has to occupy us very much in the profession of urban and spatial development. We have to think again about how the city of short distances works, how mobility can be organized with public transport, what electromobility will mean in the future, how compact settlement structures can be achieved, how we can organize an effective use of our resources, so to speak. City and region: Over the past decades, perhaps centuries, we have seen time and time again that transport costs have fallen. You can see it every day on the German autobahn: The logistics have grown enormously, and the international division of labor functions through a continued reduction in transport costs. Think of the large container ships with containers that you can see in the Elbe estuary. That means that our whole economy has been organized more and more towards a global division of labor.
14 Nevertheless, urban-regional cooperation and regional cycles will become more important because I do not believe that this development will continue forever. Transportation requires enormous amounts of energy. The questions how we want to reorganize ecologically, how we want to create regional cooperation, cycles, how we can ensure the food supply of the cities from the surrounding area so that we still know what we eat and not just make assumptions about how we use energy networks Organize the regions, establish regional production cycles. All these questions will possibly play a much greater role again in the future, despite globalization. 12 The knowledge society: When I was studying there were many prophets who said: IT will lead to the city, the place, so to speak, the space becoming less important. You can network with media everywhere. That's true. And yet we experience a phenomenon that is actually crazy. People all want to go to the cities. We have never seen such a strong renaissance of the cities in Germany since the Second World War as we do now. People have immigrated to Berlin in recent years. Net! In Leipzig, a city with a little more than half a million inhabitants, there were people every year. In East Germany, where everyone is talking about shrinkage and where shrinkage is taking place on a massive scale in real terms, the larger cities are clearly the beneficiaries. Essentially, it is because the creative sectors such as knowledge, education and culture feel at home in these locations. You are very affectionate with the city. All modern service providers want to go to the cities. As a result, cities are becoming enormously important. The knowledge society obviously loves urban milieus. They are innovative, can organize the exchange of knowledge and much more. What are we building on? Our cities are one of the great qualities of Europe. European cities have always shown the ability to integrate, in social and structural terms. They didn't stay classic. You didn't always build in the same style. But we have a lot that Europe has cities from Ukraine to Portugal and from Scandinavia to
15 13 Greece connects: the urban planning traditions and the democratic constitution, equal opportunities, inclusion services, etc. In my opinion, this fundamentally distinguishes our cities from the Asian and American ones. It is a quality that, under certain aspects, and Hannelore Schlaffer's book points out, we have lost a bit in the Citys. What was once the old town is certainly no longer today's city. But by and large we have a situation in European cities that represents a great cultural achievement, guarantees inclusion and provides urban arrangements that are manageable and legible. Many cities in the world look the same. Our cities, on the other hand, are cities with properties. They can be distinguished in essential parts. There are not only steel and glass palaces like everywhere else, but we have urban planning traditions that are also legible. In Europe, when Germany held the EU Council Presidency in 2007, we dealt intensively with European cities. What are the challenges you face? What is actually to be done? The planners have
16 a strategy they call integrated urban development. By that they mean a certain form of governance, how we deal with the issues. The big challenge in our cities is certainly not just to work on the topics on a sectoral basis, but also to discuss the various topics together in the neighborhoods. The realization that the integrated consideration of the topics, one could also paraphrase it with the term sustainability, is a very important strategy, is meanwhile very widespread in Europe. 14 In 2007 we agreed with all of the neighboring countries that it is important to take care of the disadvantaged neighborhoods in the cities, for a variety of reasons. They are often the arrival points of immigrants. Sometimes they are places where very many people live, whom we describe as uneducated. And since we are a society that is getting older and older, it is precisely in these places that the question arises as to whether we will manage to deal with our demographic problems to a certain extent. Because if we lose the generation of young migrants in these neighborhoods, including as skilled workers, then we have lost sight of an important issue. In this respect, from an urban planning and urban development policy perspective, worrying about disadvantaged neighborhoods is not just a question of social compassion, but also a question of economy. The development of skilled workers in these districts is a very important topic.At the national level, we tried to set accents with the national urban development policy by questioning the traditional image a little. In the past, planners always thought they could change the world and always saw the state as primarily responsible. We have learned today that urban development is a joint effort by many: civil society, business, and of course the public sector. Urban development needs to focus much more on this. That is why we have dealt with certain topics:
17 How can we involve citizens more actively in urban development? How can we strengthen the social city? What actually holds the city together at its core? How can we create opportunities and maintain social cohesion? How can we support the ability of cities to drive innovation and organize economic potential? How can we prepare cities for climate change? How to build the city of tomorrow? How can we ensure that cities are better designed? Not everything is really well designed and citizens are quite critical of it. Many of the failures of my and other professions are rightly judged very critically today. Because the questions What does it actually look like? Is it beautiful? Is it pleasant? move the citizens. How is the future of cities shaped in a regional context? We also need to talk more about transport in the cities. We built a lot in the 50s, 60s and 70s: big roads, city highways. As some say a bit nastily, we have made the cities car-friendly in many places. The question of how we can cultivate mobility again in cities, in such a way that not only the automobile dictates the design of urban spaces, is central. We have a great opportunity because the many roads, bridges, etc. that we built in the 1960s and 1970s have to be renovated or even rebuilt today. Are we doing it just as badly as it was then or can we do it better? The question of how we deal with traffic in cities is also very central for the quality of our urban spaces, for the quality of their stay. We can achieve a great deal here. 15 The same applies to the energy transition. This raises questions about the design: What does it actually look like? This not only affects the asparagus towers in the landscape, but also the houses. We pave our roofs with solar panels that come from the hardware store. We pack our beautiful Wilhelminian style villas with plastic. We build biogas plants that look good
18 like bunker. I think we need a culture of the energy transition that also asks the question: What does the energy transition mean for the beauty of our cities and landscapes? How can we achieve something there? The KfW funding, which spends 1.5 billion euros a year to wrap our houses in polyester foam and do other nice things, has gone to the Ministry of Economic Affairs. I don't think that's good for building culture. I just want to make an appeal to all political actors to give a little thought to this question. 16 So it's about the careful ecological renovation of our quarters and not of our houses. Over the past ten years, we have mainly focused on the individual house throughout the entire energy efficiency debate. We tried to make the individual house as great as possible, maybe even to a plus-energy house, which is actually only possible in a new building. It is also not at all decisive, because we are only building a few new apartments. We have 40 million apartments. We built last year. The question of efficiency is therefore decided in the existing building and not in the individual house. This is where a decision is made as to whether we will succeed in building efficient quarters. And insulation does not make sense in every house. If I have good district heating in the neighborhood, which may result from the use of waste heat, why should I still insulate the houses? In other words, looking at individual houses is basically a mistake in the energy efficiency debate. I come to the sustainable renovation of our quarters. After the war we had the relaxed city. Then came urbanity through density in the 1960s. We have seen that it makes sense to put the old city in order. We said goodbye to the demolition renovation. Berlin was a bit of a pioneer with the International Building Exhibition in the 1980s. We have rediscovered the old city, the gentle renewal. We thought about it: How can we keep cities compact? In terms of traffic, I also strongly promoted compactness.
19 We have to think about how we organize the balance in the cities, the balance of open space and built-up space, the cold air storage options of urban agriculture and attractive green spaces. In Berlin in particular, we are experiencing a heated debate about what this balance looks like. We need new apartments, not least for the people who come to us. We have a huge, 350 hectare Tempelhofer Feld. In just over a week we will vote on whether it is allowed to cultivate 50 hectares in this field and to keep an open space that is larger than the zoo. As you can see, the debate about how a city can cope with the pain of growth is difficult. We have all settled down to the fact that it is wonderfully comfortable when we are no longer growing. We made ourselves comfortable in it, especially the owners of beautiful, large apartments. For the newcomers who need to be looked after, who may not be able to pay the rent, we don't have so many great ideas so far. We have to take care of that more. 17 We also have to take care of our infrastructure: If we want an energy transition, we need a completely different infrastructure in the area of energy supply. We no longer have the big power station outside, which pumps the energy into the city in a big canal, but rather
20 we suddenly have thousands of producers in the cities with solar panels, small wind power plants, combined heat and power plants, etc. That will require a completely new infrastructure. We have known that for a long time, but making it concrete is the real challenge that will occupy cities in the next 30 years. In this respect, I believe that of all the issues that come our way, the energy transition and the associated changes in the energy system will change our cities most sustainably. 18 When it comes to traffic, we're big on Sunday speeches. Traffic is the saddest chapter of our ecological restructuring. We didn't achieve anything. Our cars get a little better every year. That means we need a little less fuel. But we drive more. When it comes to flying, it is even clearer: every citizen of this country flies five percent more on average every year. However, our aircraft are only becoming two percent more efficient each year. So we have no efficiency gains, but are getting worse. We're talking about the fact that the efficiency technology in the German automotive industry is wonderful because we're getting a little better every year. But that we have achieved relatively little in toto in this field, in which we use a third of our energy, is also part of the truth. We have to adapt. Electromobility is sure to become a big topic. It is also good if the electricity does not come from nuclear power plants, but from renewable energies. We now have a large number of wind power plants, but we still have to learn how to save and will be able to do it in the long run. Then we have the chance to change mobility a little bit. Furthermore, we have to focus more on what is part of mobility: walking, cycling and using local public transport. Because that will be the only ecologically justifiable form of transport in the future, at least in the cities. Last but not least: social integration. In Europe, too, the divide between rich and poor in the cities is increasing, despite all our concerns.
21 efforts. In fact, we no longer have a major instrument that we used to have, social housing, if at all, then only to a marginal extent. The federal government is providing the federal states with 500 million euros in unbundling funds. Some federal states and municipalities go a little further. Above all, the wealthy municipalities can afford that. In Berlin we can afford 64 million euros a year, in Munich you can afford 800 million euros a year. This shows a bit of the polarity in the republic. Hamburgers can still afford 200 million euros a year. Social housing was certainly an important tool for organizing social mix. We will all have to continue to work hard on this topic. We are a long way from conditions like in São Paulo, for example, where segregation is extreme. The European cities are still very mixed. But we must not close our eyes: segregation is increasing. We are doing a two-year social monitoring in Berlin and can already see that we tend to have problems in the outer city quarters and that the inner city area is meanwhile, at least in part, covered by gentrification. So we need many who take care of the sustainable city. This is an important issue so that we can move forward together in small and large alliances. We have to think today about what the future looks like, think about tomorrow today. We should bravely look for alternatives. I claim that there is nothing without an alternative, even if we sometimes hear it on the radio and television. I also think we need to have a little more courage to experiment again. This is much harder to say for a practicing politician than for an IBA executive. Experiments are practically booked in there. If we, as practical politicians, make a mistake, we get in a lot of trouble. 19 And we have to have the courage to build the future in competition for the best ideas. As planners and architects, we must not retreat to a field that is currently very much in vogue. Many of my colleagues today see themselves primarily as moderators.
22 20 goals. That is entirely justified. But ultimately we are responsible for shaping and developing our cities. And politics, I say this self-critically and critically in general, cannot duck back. We have an apartment theme in town. We can't pretend it's none of our business. In this respect, the design assignment is important. Part of the design assignment is that we produce building culture, that we try to build decent roads. The Parisians were able to build roads with ten car lanes, which are still decent roads. We should try to build good parks. The design of public space is a core task of the public sector. As a rule, the private sector is responsible for private construction. We are responsible for the public space. I am now closer to the topic of our event today. The public space in the inner cities, the questions of how it is laid out, who can use it, how it is designed, what social function it can fulfill, are very important issues. Of course, we can also reurbanize roads again, build beautiful bridges that are not just desolate transport channels. And we can even build trams that don't have an overhead line, that look great, and that make you feel that local public transport is fun here. The European city has qualities that are worth developing further: structural, cultural qualities, its social integration power, its economic and ecological potential. I consider the European city to be a terrific cultural achievement. Our cities are cities with characteristics a treasure that connects and unites us beyond the borders of Europe. I can still remember how, after the fall of the Iron Curtain, we rediscovered and realized the Eastern European cities: This is a common cultural heritage that connects us very strongly in West and East, in North and South. We have many issues in Europe that we argue about. But how we develop these cities can be a common theme in Europe.
24 Laudation Dr. Klaus Hohlfeld spokesman for the jury 22 Today the award is given to a political book that deals with the shape of the modern city, its appearance and its perception as a place of everyday social events. The jury has the book by Hannelore Schlaffer Die City. Street life in the planned city proposed for the price The Political Book of the Friedrich Ebert Foundation. It consists mainly of librarians. Therefore, a short review is certainly not without interest, also because of the subject of our price book. The Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung, more precisely the former working group of publishers, booksellers and librarians in the Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung, held a series of seminars in the 1970s to put together a working paper entitled Library in a Human City, Materials a current discussion. Articles from the specialist journal Buch und Bibliothek were supplemented by texts by well-known cultural and local politicians such as Hermann Glaser. It was about the importance of the municipal public library in the city, which is committed to the ideals of an urban way of life, a city in which living, working and leisure can easily be realized alongside and with one another, in culture not as a counter-world to the economic Constraints in which the library meets the needs of public and private interests. The working paper reflected the current state of discussion on the subject of urban planning and cultural policy in the 1970s, focusing on the municipal public library. The working group of publishers, booksellers and librarians in the Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung took the successful course and the results of the seminar series as an opportunity to
25 23 The Prize for Establishing the Political Book was awarded for the first time. There were continuities among the participants in the seminar series and the jury, in some cases until today. And now a book is being honored that quite questions the view of the ideal of urban quality at the time, because today's reality is different. This is the special value, but of course also the charm of the book. Because it directs the gaze towards a reality that no longer has much to do with the traditional, largely ideal-type notion of the city as a place of communication, aimless strolling, seeing and being seen. The book corrects some things, it disillusiones and thus clears the view. The form of the city, which has now been experienced as historical, as exemplified in Paris in the 19th century, is used by Hannelore Schlaffer as an alternative to the modern metropolis, the lifeline of which is the city, the business mile with shopping centers, administrations and banks. Hannelore Schlaffer describes this modern focal point of the city from different perspectives in an inimitably subtle way. It shows how crowds of people who work and consume here are concentrated here every day. The city is a mirror of today's
26 24 Society. It is the result of economic planning, aided by the destruction in World War II. Hannelore Schlaffer's book sensitizes us to the fact that the traditional notion of a city that has developed around a church, market square and town hall no longer corresponds to reality, and does not help us any longer if we try the one today to think ahead of the existing city. Hannelore Schlaffer describes the text as an essay. This signals openness to further considerations. The historical perspective remains present everywhere in the book, as the current form of the city with the city as the pivot is understood as something that has become, something planned, understandable only if one knows the earlier forms of the city, albeit often in their transfiguration and literary fixation . The political dimension of the book consists in the indirect request to see the former as the former and to deal with facts, even if we do not necessarily like them. Questions arise. Is the
27 Core area of the city, the city, the only zone that is purely economically determined? Where is the place where the citizen also satisfies other interests beyond the economic? Where in the city are science, the arts, museums, theaters and libraries located? Are they only conceivable in peripheral areas, as mere flourishes on the superstructure, as fuss? Are they just fig leaves for a thoroughly economized society, the mirror of which is the city of the big city? The book offers situation analysis and provokes questions to which there are no quick answers. A book beyond the day! 25th
28 The Political Book 2014 Jury Statement 26 Hardly any other topic is as central to day-to-day political interest as the orientation of our urban environment. The pros and cons of major projects in the heart of the city provoke and polarize local politics and committed citizens. The book by Hannelore Schlaffer Die City.Street life in the planned city pointedly characterizes significant features of the modern city and provides important impulses for dealing with issues that both determine everyday urban life and shape urban consciousness. The historically grown city center with the coexistence and coexistence of the expressions of life, living, work and leisure is hardly there anymore. Attempts to regain traditional urbanity have not been successful. As Hannelore Schlaffer convincingly illustrates, the center and pivot point of the big city is no longer the area around the church, market and town hall, but the so-called city, the business mile with office buildings, banks and shopping centers. Every day, especially in the middle of the day, there are crowds of people who work and consume in the city. Urbanity as a way of life that has now become historical no longer characterizes the city, but the densification of people who live in the suburbs and the region and who populate the city every day. The design of this city is not the result of politically controlled urban planning, but the goal of investor efforts. In her rich panorama of current city life, Hannelore Schlaffer decodes the modern city as a cipher of a thoroughly economized world. Her essay combines observation, definition and analysis in an artistically sophisticated form and language and raises questions in an indirect but immanent form that are of high socio-political relevance.
30 CERTIFICATE The Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung awards Hannelore Schlaffer the prize THE POLITICAL BOOK Kurt Beck Chairman of the Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung Berlin, May 15, 2014 Speaker: Dr. Klaus Hohlfeld (Mannheim) Horst Baraczewski (Bremen) Wolfgang Budde-Roth (Bonn) Jens Hundrieser (Dinslaken) Dr. Annette Kasper (Jena) Barbara Lison (Bremen) Werner Stephan (Stuttgart) Dr. Beate Tröger (Münster)
31 Speech in the feature section and politics Prof. Dr. Hannelore Schlaffer Dear Chairman, Ladies and Gentlemen, I would like to thank you for the award, which, beyond all honor, makes me happy, yes, I would even like to say: reassured. My acquaintances among the readers of the book who want to tell me something friendly about it always list a few isolated observations, anecdotes from everyday life, so to speak, which they have already, consciously or unconsciously, noticed and which they, finally written down and counted - and definitely, amuse yourself now. They divide the text of the book into nothing but small pieces of text, into little stones and found objects that delight, in glosses, columns, and features that were already enjoyed in the 19th century and therefore had to be devalued as butterflies, speared on a needle. Just to amuse, however, was not the intention in which I wrote the book. It is true that some of the phenomena of street life that I am describing first struck me as isolated, albeit recurring, phenomena, and some were really initially formulated as glosses and appeared in newspapers or magazines. But I am not a collector, and the book I was planning should not be an anthology. The individual always turned out to be a symptom that referred to a larger context and that tempted one to bring out from behind the amusing appearance that quantum of reality that connects it with the whole. In retrospect, I would like to quote an observation by Hermann Bahr as the motto for my description of street life: The greatest liar comes true while walking; because, as Bahr explains his motto, what hardly anyone knows about himself, it is so deep, everyone can see in his walkway [...]. You force an angry man to slow down, 29
32 great paces; andantino should he tell us his anger. The cheering power of dance is based on the fact that it makes the mood of the feet grow over our heads (Bahr, 101). The graphology of movement that I intended was supposed to reveal the character of each individual and, within this, that of a whole society. 30 However, to quote Adalbert Stifter, I collected colored stones and, as the poet put it in his famous preface, sought to rediscover the great in the small or, to do it with a more important authority of political theory, with Friedrich Engels, to say: I was hanging around in the background of the state's actions to find out how history goes down in the life story of everyone. Engels formulates this connection with due theoretical emphasis and scientific dryness in a famous sentence from his ideology-critical work Anti-Dühring: The idea that the main political and state actions were the decisive thing in history is as old as historiography itself and is that The main reason for the fact that so little has been kept for us about the quiet and really driving development of the peoples in the background of these noisy appearances (MEW 20, 148 Anti-Dühring). Significant knowledge about the development of peoples will not, however, have revealed to me; but the price of the Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung confirms me and therefore I would like to emphasize once again how much I thank you for not only collecting colored stones or butterflies, but also trying to make a contribution to the knowledge of what is not the development of peoples, but, to put it more simply, that of everyday life. So the price induces me to think again about the method of the description I have chosen and to reconsider the connection between colored stones and adjacent rocks or, more seriously and more unpoetically, between literature and politics: So what does literature do, what
34 do literary genres that deal with everyday life contribute to political awareness? 32 In the 18th century, newspapers and magazines opened up new possibilities for publication, and they created texts that registered everyday life and wanted to influence it: the features section, the essay, the commentary, the correspondence message. These small literary forms quickly became popular reading and, precisely because of their success, earned an even worse reputation among readers. Soon they were seen as entertainment for the tired consciousness of an otherwise hard-working citizen. Not only that one denied them in all seriousness, seeing their quality especially in the linguistic brilliance and, as initially quoted, admired them as butterflies. As early as 1785, the Münchner Zeitung consoled its lazy readers by promising them to only offer precious stones to read and to report only the best about literature and art in order to entertain them as well as possible (Bender, Klassiker des F. 238). In the 19th century even the most critical feature sections were dismissed as an artist's whim and given a loving smile; it was said to have been thought up by the bohemians in the gutter and written down on the street corner. The devaluation of features and physiology, those humorous characteristics of people in street life, civil servants for example, singers, conductors, students, progressed when, in the middle of the century, the short texts of the newly created advertising served as a framework: the advertising for coffee Surrounded by a literary text that characterized the coffee drinker, the advertisement for fine fabrics was garnished with the caricaturing description of a lady attending the opera. Since at that time there were no nice photos available to entice customers to buy, they were captured with nice words. The entertaining gloss is the forerunner of the eternally smiling young woman and the squeaky comic figure that animate the buyer today.
35 33 Beyond this degradation to mere amusement and purchase incentive, the opportunity that the small feature section had and that it continued to use should not be overlooked. The literary genre, which I am provisionally grouping under the collective term feuilleton, was created with the newspaper, a political organ, and designed with it as a literary form of political thought. If literary scholars describe poetry as the linguistic form of feeling, sensual perceptions and linguistic music, describe the novel as a compendium of characters, events and their consequences, name the literary form of action and planning, then the features would be the glossary , the commentary, the Shapes of Light Consciousness column. The features section is the genre of political vigilance, resentment and protest. Despite the belittling reception that the feature pages experienced in the 19th century, the political character of the genre remained conscious. The Journal des Débats, which was the first to banish its cultural news and articles to the bottom fifth of the paper, the Feuille, i.e. the bottom line, as
36 Feuilleton, nevertheless expressly declares that this line should not be a dividing line between politics and culture. Heinrich von Kleist founded the magazine Phöbus specifically in order, as he explained, to use the opportunity to exercise criticism in all forms and to offer his readers judgments about judgments, the Vossische Zeitung submitted to the revolutionary character of the year the banner of progress; and in 1933 (April 23, Werke III, 1049), René Schickele, who had returned to Alsace, noted with relief in his diary when the Frankfurter Zeitung asked him to collaborate: The feature section, the opposition's last hiding place. 34 At its origins and in the very first copies made in France, the features section was a political pamphlet, the most successful and momentous representative of which was Louis-Sébastien Mercier (). Driven by a violent theatrical passion, the prolific writer wrote between 1769 and dramas, but had no success at the Comédie Française and, after a trial with this institution, which he finally lost in 1775, made the whole of Paris his stage. Since then Mercier has written thousands of sketches about Parisian street life, about the aristocracy and their salons, about the cafes of the bourgeois intelligentsia, about traders and their market behavior, about show-offs, beggars, musicians, artists, but also about the maladministration in this city into which people from all over France crowded en masse. Hygiene and concern for the health of the people were among Mercier's favorite subjects, and so it can be said that no flea escaped his keen eye. Mercier's miniatures first turned Paris into Paris, the city that all of Europe admired and is admired to this day. Above all, however, the Parisians themselves became aware of their city and its possibilities. In Mercier's texts, which appeared at such short intervals that the reader of one of them was already waiting for the next one could recognize Mercier's painting of Paris as the first serial novel, the first series
37 the individual as part of the whole that was called Paris. The wisdom of antiquity, Know Yourself, was the first time Mercier applied to this collective. La Cité, the city, became a collective term to which individual existence was subordinated. The big picture was no longer represented by the absolutist state and the Christian ecumenism, the collective was the city. The citizens no longer saw their existence in the city as a god-given condition and as a fate, they understood this rather as their own, plannable and political affair. The everyday, which until then had been accepted in its eternal return, revealed itself as historically made and changeable. The social differences, in which Mercier was particularly interested, laid a city map through Paris in which every reader could determine his private and even more his political location. 35 The self-knowledge that the Parisians achieved through Mercier's description can be seen as the origin of class consciousness: the rampant collective, which at first appeared to be amorphous, was dismantled and reorganized according to affiliations, lifestyles, working conditions; Their visual appearance was the city map with its quarters and the tension between the center (Cité) and the periphery, the tension also between castle, church, town house and hut, between pomp and dirt. A society of social milieus had emerged from the proliferating crowd. The citizen of the city that Mercier told him was not yet a party, but reading had made him partisan. With the feature pages, Mercier developed that trait among his readers, without which democratic thinking is not possible: partiality. A thought always arises from the observation contained in the features section, but this does not progress to theory. The eyewitness of the empirical subject counts more than the theory of the political thinker. Features expressions of opinion, not challenges, appeals, not orders.
38 Partiality is more of a mood than a program, and the features section is the literary venue for this mood. It translates political grievances into feelings of displeasure. With his texts, the author promotes the resentment of the reader, and it takes a next step to advance to political awareness and action. Features are stimulants, not guides. The café house was not infrequently the feature writer's observer post until the early 20th century, and so what he designed and wrote there was as stimulating to the reader as a cup of coffee: his mind became more alert, his attention more lively, his judgment sharper , his heart pounded more partisan; he took a position, but he didn't make up his mind. 36 For the author, too, writing remained the only act of protest, and as someone who did not act he was prone to melancholy. It is the unhappy expression that earned the feature writer ridicule and contempt for those who happily took action. Mercier saw through himself as such an inactive nonsense. The title copper of the first edition of the collection of his feature pages shows an allegory with the ship of state as a crown and a wall behind which the pinnacles of Notre-Dame and a faun appear. The motto under this graphic characterizes the author as a pessimist: Rembrunissons nos pinceaux / broyons du noir (let's darken our brush / let's paint in black [or: let's hang on to cloudy thoughts]). In 1781, the year Necker was dismissed by Louis XVI, the first volume of the Tableau de Paris was published. What better way to prove the political impact of the feature pages than the censorship that was immediately imposed on the volume, because it was selling well. Mercier had to flee once again from the stage, which had become so much more important to him than that of the Comédie Française, from Paris, but turned himself into a hero since the police arrested and accused an innocent man as the author of the book, although a newspaper writer was after all a hero , the judge with a copy of his work still fresh off the press in his hand and with the words: Sir, I have heard that you are looking for the author of this work; here I present you book and author at the same time (480).
39 37 Mercier's collection soon reached six and later even eight volumes with a total of chapters. Eight volumes appeared in Leipzig as early as 1783/84, and these had the same effect in Germany as in France. The individual feature sections could still pass as entertainment; the collection had made even the opinion of a single author a political instrument. Mercier's painting of the metropolis is comparable and its political impact is no less than D Alembert's and Diderot's encyclopedia. In both projects, people become themselves a phenomenon. These two major projects of the 18th century, one organized by the entire Enlightenment elite, the other by a single man, defined the knowledge and lifestyle of their time and thus created the basis on which a new society could be founded, one that was not As previously the aristocracy and the church, built their rule on power and divine grace, but on the critical observation of reality and the permanent correction of its inadequacies.
40 38 The feature section is the poetic-political hybrid of the third estate, that which carried the revolution and benefited from it. One of the later chapters of the tableau deals with insubordination, and thus turns against the insubordination of the masses, whose welfare the third estate at that time did not yet have in mind. The basic idea of my book about the city is based on the statement that the crowd, which corrected this disregard in the course of the 19th century, calmed itself down into a peaceful crowd in the present, since it has achieved its goal. The observations in my book do not have to lead to a revolution, like the Merciers, because the rebellious masses have long since left it. We do not have to envy Mercier, who ended his life as an official in the republican empire of Napoleon. However, he thought he felt the envy of his fellow and posterity. The burial motto he wrote himself probably also has the success he had with the Tableau de Paris as a stimulus for resistance against the absolutist state.It reads: People of all countries, envies my fate: Born as a subject, my grave lies in a republic. Some of us were born as subjects (of a dictatorship in this country or elsewhere), in any case the hope will be fulfilled in this country that everyone, like Mercier, can say of himself: My grave is in a republic .
41 List of recommendations 2014 In addition to the price book, the jury recommends other important political books every year: Andrew Blackwell Welcome to sunny Chernobyl Radiated, contaminated, poisoned an exploration of the worst places in the world Munich: Ludwig Verlag, S., 19.99 With personal dismay and a lot The American journalist Blackwell writes dry humor about a world as we have it and not how we would like it to be. During his visits to places and landscapes that are marked by environmental degradation, he shows solidarity with the people who live and suffer there. However, he also repeatedly suggests that he has not lost faith in the changeability of this world. Daniela Dahn We are the state! Why being a people is not enough Reinbeck near Hamburg: Rowohlt Verlag, S., 16.95 39 With this essay Daniela Dahn presents a text that is extremely readable and worth considering, in which she consciously ties in with the reputation we are the people. It calls for a comprehensive questioning of current global governance structures and the distribution of power and property in view of the fact that political action can hardly be influenced by the actual sovereign, the people, via classic democratic procedures and regulations. And so Daniela encourages Dahn to actively counteract a development in the course of which the state is increasingly transforming itself into an apparatus for the protection of systemically relevant private property at the expense of the general public.
42 El-Gawhary, Karim Woman power in Arabic. Beyond the cliché and the headscarf debate Vienna: Verlag Kremayr & Scheriau, 2013., 204 S., 22.00 40 Woman power in Arabic by Karim El-Gawhary proves that the Arab woman does not exist as a stereotype. On the contrary, various portraits show that the image of the Arab woman as a passive victim is in need of revision. On the other hand, the author clearly names the problems that continue to exist for women in Arab countries and thus also shows the brokenness of hope and devotion to fate, for example after the so-called Arab revolution in Egypt or Libya. And it also shows that the real problem of the position of women in the Arab world lies primarily in the economic situation. Andreas Müller Put an end to social romance. A juvenile judge takes stock of Freiburg / Basel / Vienna: Herder-Verlag, S., 16.99 The juvenile judge Andreas Müller points to problems in the case law on juvenile intensive offenders. The often held hypothesis that appearing in court and even imprisonment led to relapses more often than socio-educational measures, has proven to be wrong. Today's reality is often about more serious crimes and repeat offenders. A direct reaction or sanction to the act is extremely important, which is why the police, public prosecutor and judge must work together more closely and faster.
43 Pavan Sukhdev Corporation Why we have to rethink the economy Munich: oekonom Verlag, S., 19.95 Pavan Sukhdev, former top manager of Deutsche Bank, emphasizes the urgency of a fundamental reform of our consumption-based economic system. The damage caused by the unchecked consumption of raw materials and the emission of pollutants would very soon hit all of humanity hard. The costs of this damage, which often does not appear in the price of the products, should be listed in the company's balance sheets and thus made politicians and the public aware of. The author calls for taxes on the consumption of the environment, limitation of the use of outside capital, honesty in advertising and the common good as a goal of economic activity. 41 Harald Welzer Think for yourself. A guide to resistance Frankfurt am Main: S. Fischer Verlag, S., 19.99 Welzer examines the question of what our future looks like with uninterrupted consumption and finite resources and shows that an end is in sight for our growth-oriented economy. He makes it clear that every person is part of the problem with his actions, but not as a victim of the circumstances, but as a political being with his own head and the freedom to think and change circumstances. He awakens hope for a better future with innovative ideas that go beyond common business and industry.
44 The jury members Horst Baraczewski vintage high school graduation, apprenticeship as a bookseller. Since 1993 managing director of the bookstore Arthur Geist GmbH, Bremen. Member of the board of the Bremen Literature Foundation since Member of the jury since Wolfgang Budde-Roth class Studied philosophy and theology, history and political science, plus Latin and sociology. Librarian a. D. in the library of the Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung. Member of the jury since Dr. Klaus Hohlfeld born up to 1964 studies, mainly history and German. Doctoral thesis on a contemporary history subject until 1973, specialist lecturer for history and social sciences at the Hamburg public library. At the Mannheim City Library since 1973, as its director from 1976 to 2002. Specialized publications on library policy and history. Employee of the library discussion service of the specialist journal Buch und Bibliothek in the fields of politics, contemporary history and theater. From the beginning (1982) member of the jury The Political Book, since 1990 its spokesman. Jens Hundrieser born in Gdansk. Studied librarianship in Göttingen. Lecturer for the training of library assistants in the church service at the German Association of Protestant Libraries, Göttingen. From 1977 to the end of 2005 head of the city library in Dinslaken. Dr. Annette Kasper, born in Jena (German, history, pedagogy), followed by research and doctorate, until February 1994 scientific assistant at the literature and art studies section of the University of Jena, from March 1994 work in the cultural department of the Zeiss combine, since September 1995 Head of the Ernst Abbe Library in Jena.
45 Barbara Lison Born in Slavic Studies, History, Educational Science, then several leading positions in librarianship, since 1992 director of the Bremen City Library. Advisory activities for libraries in Germany and abroad. Managing director and jury member of the Rudolf Alexander Schröder Foundation for the award of the Bremen Literature Prize. Werner Stephan Born in civil engineering and geosciences. Librarian since 1979, first in Darmstadt, later at the Deutsche Bibliothek in Frankfurt am Main as Director for Services and Usage. In this function, significantly involved in the new building of the Deutsche Bibliothek / Frankfurt. Director of the Stuttgart University Library since the beginning of 1998. Active participation in the International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) and in the International Standard Organization, in the German UNESCO Commission and as a reviewer appointed by the EU. Dr. Beate Tröger Born in Philosophy, Educational Science, German Philology and Art History, followed by a doctorate in the following year, several leading positions in library affairs, since May 2004 director of the University and State Library in Münster. Board member of DINI (German Initiative for Network Information). 43
46 The winners The political book since Bonn, May 10th Prize winners: Horst Brehm Gerd Pohl Ingeborg Bayer Alwin Meyer Karl-Klaus Rabe Ceremonial speech: Björn Engholm Bonn, May 10th Prize winners: Christian Schaffernicht Dietrich Güstrow Ceremonial speech: Axel Eggebrecht 1984 Bonn, 10th May May laureates: Andrew Wilson Johano Strasser / Klaus Traube, August Rathmann Speech: Hans-Jochen Vogel 1985 Bonn, May 10th laureate: Tomi Ungerer Dieter Bänsch, Gutenberg Book Guild Festive speech: Monika Wulf-Mathies 1986 Bonn, May 14th laureate: Wolfgang Apitzsch / Thomas Klebe / Manfred Schumann Lisa Fittko Regina Becker-Schmidt / Gudrun-Axeli Knapp / Beate Schmidt Ceremonial speech: Johannes Rau 1987 Bonn, May 21st Award winner: Günter Gaus Angela Joschko / Hanne Huntemann Ruhrfestspiele Recklinghausen Ceremonial speech: Holger Börner
47 1988 Bonn, May 18, award winner: Michail Gorbatschow Gordon A. Craig Ceremonial speech: Peter Glotz 1989 Bonn, May 10, award winner: Helmut Schmidt Gioconda Belli Walter Michler 1990 Prague, May 26, award winner: Václav Havel Walter Janka 1991 Leipzig, May 10. May Prize Winner: Timothy Garton Ash Reinhard Bohse Bonn, June 4th Prize Winner: Klaus Kordon Wolfgang Benz Ceremonial Speech: Renate Schmidt 1993 Bonn, May 12th Prize Winner: Hans Magnus Enzensberger, Regina Griebel / Marlies Coburger / Heinrich Scheel Ceremonial Speech: Hans-Ulrich Klose 1994 Leipzig, May 10th Prize winners: Martin and Sylvia Greiffenhagen Wolfgang Sofsky Ceremonial speech: Günter Wichert 1995 Bonn, May 10th Prize winners: Norberto Bobbio Dieter Nohlen / Franz Nuscheler Ceremonial speech: Erhard Eppler
48 1996 Berlin, May 10th Award winner: Peter Merseburger Ernst Ulrich von Weizsäcker / Amery B. & L. Hunter Lovins Ceremonial address: Manfred Stolpe 1997 Bonn, May 14th Award winner: Noa Ben Artzi-Pelossof Ulrich Herbert Ceremonial address: Reinhard Höppner Bremen, May 19th May Prize winners: Markus Tiedemann Swetlana Alexijewitsch Ceremonial speech: Henning Scherf 1999 Bonn, May 18 Prize winners: Richard Sennett Frank Böckelmann Ceremonial speech: Anke Fuchs 2000 Berlin, May 9th Prize winners: Wolfgang Engler Ceremonial speech: Wolfgang Thierse 2001 Berlin, May 10th Prize winners: Heinrich August Winkler Ceremonial Speech: Julian Nida-Rümelin 2002 Berlin, May 7th Prize Winner: Michael Howard Ceremonial Speech: Erhard Eppler 2003 Berlin, May 14th Prize Winner: Gunter Hofmann Ceremonial Address: Peter Glotz 2004 Berlin, May 13th Prize Winner: Michael Mann Ceremonial Speech: Jürgen Kocka
49 2005 Berlin, May 12th Award winners: Carolin Emcke Speech: Heidemarie Wieczorek-Zeul 2006 Berlin, May 9th Award winners: Erhard Eppler Speeches: Hubertus Heil 2007 Berlin, May 10th Award winners: Nadja Klinger and Jens König Speeches: Matthias Platzeck 2008 Berlin , May 6th Prize winners: Peter Schaar Speech: Ehrhart Körting 2009 Berlin, May 12th Prize winners: Christiane Grefe and Harald Schumann Speeches: Wolfgang Thierse 2010 Berlin, May 11th Prize winners: Rolf Hosfeld Speeches: Andrea Nahles 2011 Berlin, July 5th Prize winners : Peer Steinbrück Ceremonial Speech: Wolfgang Schäuble Berlin, May 8th Prize Winner: Colin Crouch Ceremonial Speech: Sigmar Gabriel 2013 Berlin, May 14th Prize Winner: Robert Menasse Ceremonial Speech: Peer Steinbrück 2014 Berlin, May 14th Prize Winner: Hannelore Schlaffer Ceremonial speech: Engelbert Lütke Daldrup
50 The Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung awards the prize The Political Book annually. The prize recognizes the great importance of the political book for living democracy. 48 It is awarded to outstanding new publications that deal critically with socio-political issues, penetrate them in keeping with the times and make them understandable to a broad audience. The award is given to books that initiate trend-setting discourses and provide important impulses for dealing with central political issues. The award-winning books are intended to strengthen political interest and promote socio-political engagement. They must be in German. The Prize The Political Book is one of the most important book prizes of its kind in the German-speaking world. It is endowed with euros. The decision on the award is made by an independent jury. In addition, the jury compiles a list of other recommended political books. In remembrance of the National Socialist book burning on May 10, 1933, the award ceremony takes place annually in May. Further information on the price can be found at:
51 Everyone has the right to submit proposals. The deadline for submitting book proposals is October 15th. Managing Director of the Jury Secretariat of the Jury Dr. Tobias Mörschel Friedrich Ebert Foundation Hiroshimastraße Berlin Tel .: Fax: Agnes Gergely Friedrich Ebert Foundation Kurt Schumacher Academy Willy-Brandt-Straße Bad Münstereifel Tel .: Fax:
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