Is there a breed that is better than another

racism Why are there no “human races” - surely there are also animal races?

"Breeds" only exist in domesticated animals

There are several answers to the question about races. The first is: In this sense, animal breeds only exist in domestic animals - for example, dogs, cattle or horses. This has nothing to do with natural evolution, but these animals were bred by humans specifically for certain characteristics. This is practically non-existent with wild animals. There are no breeds in bears, wolves, tunas, or robins.

Species are not races

What there are are species: for example, there are the Indian and African elephants. And there are clear criteria for differentiating between species: animals of two species cannot have children that are capable of childbearing. But there is only one type of human being: Homo sapiens. And there is no meaningful criterion for differentiating between subspecies or races. The comparison with the animal world is therefore nowhere near.

Differences? Yes! - races? No!

The second counter-argument to alleged human races is provided by genetics. The old race doctrine 100 years ago concentrated on arbitrarily selected, eye-catching features such as skin color, hair structure or skull shape. And from this she formed different groups, just as arbitrarily.

But now everyone who has traveled the world a bit knows that the skin color of the population does not suddenly change at any border. Rather, there are endless shades between light-skinned and dark-skinned, as well as between straight and curly hair. This is the same with many other characteristics. There is no point in drawing a line at a certain level of skin darkness and saying that all people who are darker are a race of their own.

Genetics refutes race theory

Genetics confirms just that: of course, there are genetic differences between the average European and the average African. But we not only have genes for skin and hair, but also genes that influence how big we become, whether we are prone to obesity, heart attacks or depression and many other hereditary factors. The bottom line is that people within Europe differ much more genetically than they differ from people in Africa as a whole. This is another reason why it makes no sense to speak of races.

Incidentally, nowhere are the genetic differences as great as in Africa. Simply because our ancestors lived there until around 80,000 years ago. You can certainly use genes to determine relationships between population groups. Then it turns out that white Europeans are much more closely related to East Africans than East Africans are to indigenous South Africans. So: to lump all Africans together - only someone white can come up with the idea.

Racism led to racial teaching - not the other way around

And it was exactly the same: Racism is not the result of a scientific race theory, but it was the other way around. The race theory is a product of colonialism, arose out of the need to provide a reason to distinguish between supposedly higher and lower people. This is what it says in the Jena Declaration that zoologists and evolutionary researchers published in 2019. There it says about the idea of ​​the human races:

"There is no biological justification for this and in fact there never was."

From the "Jena Declaration", 2019.

If there are no races in humans, can there be "racism"?

Of course. Such words on "-ism" always describe the worldview of the respective person. An "animist" believes in the animatedness of the entire world, a "monotheist" in exactly one god, an "atheist" in none. It's the same with Buddhism, capitalism, communism. That which comes before "-ism" says nothing about what really is, but only what the people who represent this "doctrine" believe in. Someone who - contrary to science - believes that it makes sense to be able to put people in boxes according to external characteristics can therefore continue to be called a "racist".

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